Monday, October 14, 2019

Topshop vs Urban Outfitters Essay Example for Free

Topshop vs Urban Outfitters Essay Topshop was established in 1964 within a Sheffield department store called Peter Robinson in U. K. In 1974, Topshop was taken out of Peter Robinson and set up as a standalone retailer. It is a chain retail clothing store that operates in more than 20 countries. It is part of Arcadia Group, which was also owns a number of well-know outlets including Burton, Dorothy Perkins, Miss Selfridge and Wallis. It is mainly known for womens clothing and its primary sales come from clothing and fashion accessories. Their womenswear carry dresses, tops, bottoms, bags, shoes, accessories, cosmetics and lingeries. Their mission is to bring in high street fashion at affordable price, their clothing style is very edgy, chic and classy. Their target customers are students to upper-middle class, demographic from 18 to 30s. Urban Outfitters is an apparel company that was incorporated in 1976. The company was originated as â€Å"Free Peoples Store† in Philadelphia in 1970, with concentration of â€Å"funky† household items and clothing. The founder were two Philadelphians, Scott Hayne and Scott Belair. The companys womenswear carry dresses, swimwear, tops, bottoms, bags, outerwear, accessories and intimates. Their products are urban hipster style, vintage feel with a modern twist, something that you can wear everyday. They target at young adult market, age from teens to 20s. Both Urban Outfitters and Topshop are specialty retail store. Topshop s visual merchandising at the front door is quite eye-catching. I think the clothes on the mannequins give a clear picture of what their product style is and what they are selling –cutting edge style. Their recent exterior is displaying mannequins which are facing inside the store rather than outside, this stimulates ones curiosity to enter the store and find out how the front view of the mannequins look like. The merchandise that are featured in the window are positioned on the ground floor, mostly in the center of the store where the themed merchandised items are located. Urban Outfitterss store window decor is not as appealing compare with Topshop. However, they are able to give out a message of their style—earthy, hip and unconventional style. Most of their merchandise that are featured in the window are located on the ground floor but they are not easy to be found as products are placed in different section. Merchandise of Topshop is organized by category, theme and clearance with different size range while Urban Outfitters is organized by category, designers and clearance with different size range. Sale merchandise in Topshop is positioned on the top floor of the store. They are placed according to category and located in a different area. Clothing from 10% to 30% off and shoes from 30% to 60% off. Sale merchandise of Urban outfitters is also positioned on the top floor of the store. However, they are grouped in a sale zone. Clothing and shoes from 30% to 40% off. In Topshop, all clothing are hanging on the rack, part of the accessories are placed on the table but mostly are hanging on the rack. Shoes are displayed on the wall mounted shoe rack while a few of them like boots are placed on the table within the same category section. On the other hand, Urban outfitters have their clothing both hung on the rack and folded on the table. Shoes are displayed on the wall mounted shoe rack and some are placed on the table. Accessories are displayed both on the rack and table. Books and toys are placed on either the table and the shell. Topshop is a UK national brand, their vendor assortment include collaboration with other designers. Recent collaboration is the JW Andersons collection which was launched last friday September 14, 2012. JW Anderson is a london fashion week star designer. The Topshop store in Soho has a special designed partition located by the entrance door to showcase the whole JW Andersons collection. Topshop also collaborated with starts like British supermodel Kate Moss and British artist Stella Vine in 2007. Urban Outfitters carry private label brands, all label products are mix together and placed by category. However, expensive products are organized by label brands in a particular section. In Topshop, there is a big sign of directory on the mirror wall with backlight letters next to the escalator which is hard to miss. In addition, clear signage underneath the escalator shows you the directory of the next floor while you are taking the escalator up. There are posters on the wall shows message like items on sales and student discount. In contrast, Urban Outfitters has no signage for direction used inside the store, but there are signage above the racks that indicates a particular priced group of items. Topshop is not publicly traded while Urban Outfitters is. Urban Outfitters is one of the retail brands under Urban Outfitters Inc. It is a publicly traded American company and is owned and chaired by Robert Hayne. The company is also held by several large investors, such as Fidelity Management Research Company, Maverick Capital Ltd, Vanguard Group, and Capital Guardian Trust Company. According to NASDAQ website posted on September 21, 2012. The total net sales during the second quarter of Urban Outfitters Inc. has increased increase 11% to $676. 3 million, the net sales by brands grew 14. 1% to $310. 7 million at Urban Outfitters. Topshop prices vary from line to line to accommodate all aspect of spectrum. One of their popular line â€Å"Mainline† offering classic style is marked at a reasonable pricepoint. On the other hand, â€Å"Premium† line is focus on shoppers of quality products who are looking for detailed, superior material apparel is on a higher pricepoint. Urban Outfitters prices does not vary much from label to label, products are marked at the same price range at a reasonable pricepoint. There are a few high-end label brands on a much higher pricepoint than the regular brands. In conclusion, both stores offers similar merchandise with the same merchandising philosophy. However, Topshop covers a wider range of target customers than Urban Outfitters. However, the only draw back within Topshop is its failure to provide prices that accommodate their large student market. Both of their style is very different and does not portray the same merchandising message. Topshop is more internationally recognized due to its market diversity and intense marketing strategies. I think Urban Outfitters should broaden their global threshold, for instance, expanding their market to Asia.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): Causes and Treatment

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): Causes and Treatment Urinary tract is the most common organ to experience infection which occurs from neonates to geriatrics. It account for 8.3 million doctor visit each year and represent the second most common infection in the human body (Sumaira Zareef et al.,2009). By the advancement of age, the attack of UTI increases in men due to prostate enlargement and neurogenic bladder. Recurrent infections are common and will lead to irreversible damage of the kidneys, which result in renal hypertension and renal failure in severe cases. In community, women are more prone to develop UTI and 20% of women experience a single episode of UTI during their lifetime and 3% of women may have more than one episode of UTI per year. Pregnancy also makes them more sensitive to infection. Catheter-associated UTI is a trenchant problem and bacteriuria is found in 5% of catheterised patients (Das R N et al., 2006). Urinary tract infection refers to the presence of microbes in the urinary tract. The frequency of pathogens v aries upon hospitalization, sexual intercourse, and catheterization (Getenet B et al., 2011). About 150 million people are diagnosed for having urinary tract infection with a very high risk of morbidity and mortality (Raza S et al., 2011). Urinary tract infection is found more in women when compared with men the reason may be due to anatomical structure or because of the urothelial mucosa attachment to the muco polysaccharide lining or due to other factors (Tampekar et al., 2006). Urinary tract infection is second only to respiratory tract in acquiring microbial infections (Raza S et al., 2011). Classification of Urinary Tract Infection: Urinary tract infection may be classified as upper urinary tract infection and lower urinary tract infection. According to the infected site, if its bladder then its called cystitis, if the bacterium is in the kidney then its called pyelonephrites, if its in urine the term bacteriuria is used (Getenet B et al., 2011). Manifestation of genitourinary tract infection vary from mild symptomatic cystitis to pyelonephrites and finally to septicaemia. Pyelonephrites are the sequelae of untreated or inadequately treated lower UTI and the most common cause of hospital admission during pregnancy and which lead to preterm labour(Jamie et al .,2002). Urinary tract infections are further divided into complicated and uncomplicated infections. Uncomplicated infections are those with no prior instrumentations and complicated infections are those that have done instrumentations such as indwelling, urethral catheters and it include structural and functional abnormalities (Getnet B et al., 2011). Again UTI is classified as community acquired and hospital acquired (nosocomial). In community acquired UTI single species of bacteria is found and the organisms are Escherichia coli, P.mirabilis, Pseudomonas. Hospital acquired UTI is often due to multi drug resistant strain in this similar organism but greater preponderance of Streptococci or Klebsiella is seen (Sujit K Chaudhuri., 2001). Defnition of the precise terms in Urinary Tract Infection: Significant bacteriuria It is defined as the presence of 100000 bacteria per mL of urine. Asymptomatic bacteriuria It is defined as significant bacteriuria in infected patients with the absence of symptoms Cystitis It is defined as a syndrome of frequency, dysuria, urgency in which the infection is limited to bladder and urethra. Urethral syndrome In Urethral syndrome a conventional pathogen is present and its a syndrome of dysuria, frequency in the absence of significant bacteriuria. Acute pyelonephrites It is an acute infection in one or both the kidneys. Chronic pyelonephrites It may be due to the continuous excretion of bacteria from kidney or the recurring infection of the renal cell or due to a specific pathology of both kidneys. Relapse and reinfection Relapse is defined has the recurrence of infection by the same organism which intiated original infection. Reinfection is defined as the recurrence of infection by a new organism (Roger walker et al., 2003). Several studies have demonstrated geographical variability of Pathogens occurrence among UTI inpatient and outpatient is limited by the predominance of gram negative organisms. The most frequent pathogen isolated is Escherichia coli which accounts for about 50% to 90% of all uncomplicated infections (Tampekar et al., 2006). In complicated urinary tract infection and hospitalized patients, organisms such as Enterococcus faecalis and highly resistant gram negative rods including Pseudomonas are most common (Getenet B et al., 2011). Aetiology and microbiology: The most common causative organism of uncomplicated UTI is Escherichia coli accounting more than 85% cases, followed by staphylococcus saprophyticus (coagulase-negative staphylococcus) accounting to nearly 15%. The pathogens in complicated UTI or nosocomical infections are Escherichia coli accounting 50%, Proteus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococci and Enterococci (Barbara et al., 2008). A very rare cause of urinary tract infection includes anaerobic bacteria and fungi and sometimes viruses which are detected by culture and nucleic acid amplification method. Abnormalities of the urinary tract such congenital anomalies of ureter, renal stones, enlargement of prostrate in men are other causes for urinary tract infection (Roger walker et al., 2003). Pathophysiology of UTI: (Barbara et al., 2008) The urinary tract includes two pairs of kidneys, ureter, bladder and urethra. Urinary tract infection are defined as infections at any level of the urinary tract which include, Upper urinary tract infection (Pyelonephrites) Lower urinary tract infection ( Cystitis, Urethritis) Combination of above two The bacteria causing UTIs originate from bowel flora of the host. It can be acquired via three possible routes Ascending Haematogenous Lymphatic pathways In females the short length of the urethra and proximity to the perirectal area lead to the colonization of bacteria. The organisms enter the bladder from urethra and multiply and can ascend the ureters and ascend to the kidneys. Factors that determine the development of urinary tract infections are The size of the inoculums Virulence of the microorganisms Competency of the natural host defense mechanisms. Important virulence factors of bacteria are their ability to adhere to urinary epithelial cells by fimbriae. Others include haemolysin, a cytotoxic protein produced by bacteria which lyses a large range of cells including erythrocytes, monocytes, and polymorph nuclear leukocytes. Clinical presentation: Pain or burning when you using bathroom Fever, tiredness or shakiness An urge to use the bathroom often and often Pressure in the lower belly Urine that smells bad and looks cloudy or reddish Nausea or back pain Lower urinary tract infection Dysuria, urgency, nocturia, Increased frequency of urination Upper urinary tract infection Fever, flank pain, vomiting malaise. Clinical investigation: (Roger walker et al., 2003) Laboratory diagnosis is successful when an uncontaminated urine sample is obtained for microscopy and culture. The respective patients need to instruct to produce mid stream urine sample (MSU) and then its collected into a sterile aliquot and then transferred into the specimen pot and finally is submitted to the laboratory. Dipsticks It is a rapid testing for urinary blood, nitrites, proteins and leukocyte esterase. The colour changes are assessed. Microscopy It is the first step in the diagnosis of urinary tract infections. Urine is placed on a slide and then covered with a cover slip and is examined under lens 40x. Culture The patients urine is streaked in agar medium and is incubated for 24 hours at 370C and identify the single bacterial species which as initiated the particular infection. Treatment of UTI: Non specific treatment Urinary tract infected patients are advised to drink a lot of fluids, this practice is on the basis that the bacteria is removed by frequent bladder emptying. Urinary analgesics such sodium citrate which will alkanize urine is used with antibiotics as an adjunct therapy (Roger walker et al., 2003). Pharmacological treatment of UTI Antibiotics are commonly used in Urinary tract infections. The modes of action of antibiotics may be, Inhibition of Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibition of Cytoplasmic Membrane Function Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibition of Protein Synthesis Control of Microbial Enzymes Substrate Competition with an Essential Metabolite (Barar F. S. K., 2007) UTI are mainly treated with broad spectrum Cephalosporins, Fluroquinolones, and Aminoglycosides. Cephalosporins are cell wall inhibitors which are commonly used for treating urinary tract infections caused by Gram negative organisms. It include Cefotaxime, Cephradine, Ceftazidime etc. Flouroquinolones act by inhibiting the activity of DNA gyrase and topo isomerase which are the enzymes needed for bacterial DNA replication and it includes Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Enoxacin. Aminoglycoside act by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis it include Gentamycin, Kanamycin, Amikacin etc (Farhat Ullah et al., 2009). Oral therapy in urinary tract infection is Sulphonamides example (TMP-SMX) PenicillinS which include Ampicillin, Amoxicillin- clavulanic acid. Cephalosporins example Cephalexin, Cephadrine. Tetracyclines example Doxycycline, Minocycline. Fluroquinolones example Levofloxacin, Nitrofurantine. Parentral therapy is done with Carbapenems example Imipenem-Cilastatin. Aminglycosides example Amikacin, Gentamycin (Barbara et al., 2008). 2.9 Treatments of infections of urinary tract: (S.D Seth et al., 1999) Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Infections Single-dose Trimethoprim -Sulphamethoxazole (400mg+2g) are used to treat acute uncomplicated episode of cystitis. Acute urethritis can be treated with Doxycycline 100 mg twice a day for 7 days. Single dose therapy must be restricted in patients where symptoms are present for less than 10 days. In more complicated cases seven days therapy with antibiotics should be given and alternatively broader spectrum antibiotics are used. Treatment of upper Urinary Tract Infections 10-14 day course of Trimethoprim-Sulphamethoxazole, Trimethoprim in a single dose, Cephalosporins, or Aminoglycoside gives adequate therapy. If recurrence occurs then the patient should be investigated for calculi and other urologic disease. Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections during Pregnancy Acute cystitis during pregnancy is treated with Amoxicillin, Nitrofurantoin,or Cephalosporin for 4 days. Acute pyelonephtites is managed generally with Cephalosporin or extended spectrum Penicillin. Treatment for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections In this a drug capable of achieving high tissue concentration is needed.7-14 days high treatment is given. Treatment of Asymptomatic Infections Asymptomatic bacteriuria is confirmed by a minimum of two positive cultures. An oral therapy for 1 week with the most sensitive agent is given primarly. Treatment for Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection Asymptomatic bacteriuria in catheterized patients is not treated if they are not at a high risk of sepsis. Treatment for Prostatitis The pathogen found in this is mainly Gram Negative Bacilli. Trimethoprim- Sulphamethoxazole, Erythromycin, Ciprofloxacin can penetrate prosthetic tissue and are mostly effective. If Cocci are found cloxacillin may be given. Chemoprophylaxis of Urinary Tract Infections It is indicated to patients with a very frequent symptomatic infection. A single dose Trimethoprim-Sulphamethoxazole (80mg TMP+400 mg SMZ) or Nitrofurantoin (50 mg) is found to be effective. Drug resistance: (Michelle.A.Clark et al., 2012), (Barar F.S.K 2010). Bacteria are said to be resistant to an antibiotic if the maximal level of that antibiotic which can be tolerated by the host does not alter the bacterial growth. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics may be either Natural or Acquired. Natural resistance Natural resistance is genetically determined and it depends upon the absence of a metabolic process which is affected by the respective bacteria. Acquired resistance Acquired resistance is the resistance which is seen in a previously sensitive bacterial pathogen and it involves a very stable genetic change which is heritable from one generation to another generation. The common mechanism is by mutation, adaptation, or by the development of multiple drug resistance which is as a result of transfer of genetic material from bacteria to bacteria by transformation, transduction, or conjugation. Microbial species which are normally responsive to a particular drug may develop more virulent, resistant strains due to, Genetic alterations Spontaneous mutations of DNA DNA transfer of drug resistance B) Altered expression of proteins in organism Modification of target site Decreased accumulation Enzymtic Inactivation A) Genetic alterations Acquired antibiotic is due to the temporary or permanent alteration of organisms genetic information. Spontaneous mutation of DNA Chromosomal alteration occurs by insertion or substitution of one or more nucleotides within the genome. The mutation may be lethal to the cells. If the cells survive it will replicate and transmit its mutated properties to other cells. DNA transfer of drug resistance It occurs due to DNA transfer from one bacterium to other. Resistance gene are plasmid mediated and can be incorporated into host bacterial DNA. B) Altered expression of proteins in organism It occurs by variety of mechanisms, such as a lack of or alteration in target site, increased efflux of the drug or by the expression of antibiotic inactivating enzymes. Modification of target sites The change in the antibiotic target site through mutation can lead to resistance. Example, S pneumonia resistance to beta lactums involves alteration in one or more of major bacterial penicillin binding protein. Decreased accumulation If the drug is unable to attain access to the site of its action to kill the organisms resistance confers. Enzymic inactivation The ability to destroy antibiotic agent by the pathogen can confer resistance. Antibiotic inactivating enzymes include a) Beta lactamases (Hydrolytically inactivate beta lactum ring of penicillin) b) Acetyl transferases (Transfer an acetyl group to antibiotics) c) Esterases (Hydrolyze the lactone ring of macrolides) Antibiotic tolerance: The term antibiotic tolerance is used when the antibiotic merely inhibits its multiplication and growth but no longer kills the microbial pathogen. Tolerant microbial pathogen starts to grow after antibiotics are stopped. Cross resistance: It is defined as a phenomenon in which bacteria resistant to one drug is resistant to another drug to which the bacteria is not exposed before. Examples are Neomycin and Kanamycin. Prevention of drug resistance: (K.D Tripathy 2006) Indiscriminate and prolonged use of antibiotics should be stopped it will minimise resistant strains so there will be less chance to preferentially propagate Rapidly acting and narrow spectrum antibiotics should be preferred. Broad spectrum is used when a proper one cannot be determined When prolonged therapy is needed use combination of Anti microbial agents Treatment should be intensively done for the infections by organism which develops resistance Example, Staphylococcus aureus. Evaluation of urinary tract pathogen and principles of antibiotic dosing: (Michelle.A.Clark et al., 2012), (Sharma H L et al 2011) The traditional way for the evaluating urinary tract pathogens is urine culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing. The major drawback of current microbiological analysis is time lapse of more than a day (Vesna Ivancic et al., 2008). The five important characteristic which influence frequency of dosing of all antibiotics are, Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) It is the lowest concentration of antibiotic that inhibit bacterial growth. To have effective therapy the clinically obtainable antimicrobial concentration should be greater than MIC. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) It is the lowest concentration of antibiotic agent that results in 99.9% decline in colony count after incubation. Concentration dependent killing effect [CDKE] Antibiotics are most effective when higher blood concentration is reached periodically. These bactericidal antibiotics are said to be concentration -dependent killing (CDK). In drugs whose killing action is CDK the extent and rate of killing increases with increase in drug concentration. Examples Amino glycosides, Fluroquinolones. Time dependent killing effect [TDKE] Antibiotics are most effective when the blood concentrations are maintained above the minimum inhibitory concentration for the maximum long duration possible. These bactericidal antibiotics exhibit time -dependent killing (TDK). In drugs whose killing action is (TDK) the activity of antibiotics continue as long as serum concentration are maintained above the minimum inhibitory concentration. Examples Vancomycin, Beta Lactums. Post -antibiotic effect [PAE] A suppression of bacterial growth which is persistent after a brief exposure to antibiotics agents is said to be post-antibiotic effect. In post antibiotic effect the suppression or inhibition of bacterial growth is found even when the bacterial agent is no longer present or its concentration is very less than MIC. Examples of drugs which show significant PAE are Tetracycline, Amino glycosides. The aetiology of UTI and the antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogens have been changing over the past decade. The extensive uses of antibiotics have invariably resulted in the development of resistance which has become major problem in recent years. Antibiotic treatment which are of shorter duration than required, and the treatment administered without considering antibiotic and organism sensitivity as resulted in more resistance in bacterial strains (Mohammed Akram et al., 2007), (Eshwarappa M et al., 2011). To find out the most effective empirical treatment, investigating the epidemiology of UTI is a fundamental approach to guide the expected interventions (Getnet B et al., 2011). Since the distribution of microbial pathogens and their susceptibility is variable regionally and it is necessary to have a knowledge of uropathogens and sensitivity in a particular setting (Muhammed Naeem et al., 2010). The selection of antimicrobial agents require the following knowledge, The organisms identity The organisms susceptibility to particular agent The site of the infection Patient factors The safety of the agent The cost of therapy However, in critically ill patients need immediate treatment i.e. the therapy is initiated soon after specimens for laboratory analysis have been obtained before the culture result and selection of drug is influenced by the site of infection and patients history or by the association of particular organism Prevention and prophylaxis: (Roger Walker et al). Cranberry juice: It has been thought beneficial for the prevention of urinary tract infections. The benefit of drinking cranberry juice instead of antibiotics has reduced resistance of bacteria. Antibiotic prophylaxis: It is indicated to patients who are having reinfections. If the reinfection is after sexual intercourse then after intercourse a single dose of antibiotics is taken. In other cases low dose is beneficial. Patient counselling of UTI: Drinking plenty of clear liquids will keep urine diluted. Good personal hygiene following urination and bowel movements. Cleaning self front to back from vagina to anus. Urinate frequently to wash out bacteria that may be present, avoid holding urine for prolonged periods of time. Urinate after intercourse to wash out bacteria that may have been introduced into the urethra. Avoid wearing tight jeans, wet bathing suites. Present scenario of UTI: New studies reveal that the risk of urinary tract infection is high among boys who has not circumcised and had a visible urethral meatus. Another line of UTI research has indicated that women who are non-secretors of certain blood group antigens may be more prone to recurrent urinary tract infections because the cells lining the vagina and urethra may allow bacteria to attach more easily. Scientists have worked out an effective new approach to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) by dumping antibiotics. It involves so-called FimH antagonists, which are non antibiotic compounds and would not contribute to the growing problem of pathogens resistant to antibiotics. Barriers to integration: Refugees in new countries Barriers to integration: Refugees in new countries Background 1.1 Settlement of Refugees in Australia Australia has been settling refugees for more than a century. As per official records, settlement history begins in 1839, marking the arrival of Lutherans. Nevertheless, Australia’s modern approach to refugee settlement began with a new national refugee policy in 1977. It has, now, become a designated resettlement country for refugees and it receives a designated number of refugees on annual basis as on the agreement with UNHCR. According to the best estimates available, 2009-10 was the year in which Australia, since becoming an independent nation, passed the 750,000 mark in its intake of refugees and humanitarian entrants. In recent years, the incidents of persecution, conflict, generalized violence and human rights violation have significantly increased in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali, Syria, Iran, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, and the border between Sudan and South Sudan. Surprisingly Australia has reduced its Refugee and Humanitarian Program to 13, 750 places while there is a considerable gap between resettlement needs and available places worldwide. At this point, it is important to acknowledge current refugee settlement issues in Australia. In general, settlement issues fall into four main categories as follows: In addition to these main categories, if we go further deeper into the context, it is obvious to see another horizon of challenges fall into following areas: Family and Youth Legal and Financial Community Relations Securing a meaningful employment is a truly challenging task among refugees mainly because of their lack of knowledge about Australian work place culture, no prior work experience in Australia, inadequate services to support employment transitions, discrimination, racism, lack of English proficiency, inability to get access to job market, and problems in recognizing overseas skills, experience and qualification. Finding an affordable house becomes a serious issue due to the competition in private rental market. Renting and retaining the house have equal consideration as finding the house. Discrimination and racism appear again as opposing factors. Moreover, financial hardship of refuges, size of families, their lack of Australian rental history, and unawareness about tenancy rights and responsibilities can be said as reasons for housing difficulties during their settlement. Educational barriers are different system of education, different languages, inadequate induction and support, high illiteracy among refugee communities, disruption of schooling for young people and enrollment based on age rather than knowledge. Inconsistency in policies and practices results in ignoring needs of young people with disrupted education. Health issues are normally caused by family separation, their prior experience and trauma, lack of social networks and consequent isolation. All of the above issues (Employment, Housing and Education) negatively affect the health and mental wellbeing of these communities. We can notice a great demand for interpreters in health sector since they are often required in counseling and consultation. Integrational conflicts and cultural shocks attempt to damage family relations and people’s values. For an example, younger ones adapt more readily and it leads to misunderstanding and confusion within families. Parenting becomes more challenging. Cultural clashes affect spousal relationships in a negative way and ends up in separation and divorces. Domestic violence and family breakdowns seem to be common in refugee communities. On the other hand, there are serious concerns about unaccompanied minors and single mothers with many children. When it comes to youth, due to their prior refugee experience, limited education or work experience, cultural dislocation and loss of established social networks lead them to frustration. Resulting frustration has its own dangerous consequences such as involving in illegal activities. Most of the refugees who come from war torn countries see the police as an oppressive authority. This viewpoint often creates misunderstanding between police and refugee communities. Racism does its part to damage this relationship worse than we assume. Refugees are in need for legal advices regarding their visa process, financial arrangements and documentations. Cultural incompetency of legal advisers and refugee’s lack of knowledge of legal systems can be highlighted under this area. Community relations between refugee communities and host communities are influenced by myth about refugees, cultural misunderstanding, discrimination and racism. These factors prevent both communities to create wider interactions for better understanding between them. Without a positive cooperation from local community, it is difficult to succeed in settlement. All these main categories and areas of settlement issues repeatedly highlight a gap between refugee communities and local community. And a detachment between refugees and local systems is also visible. These gap and detachment practically become great barriers for a smooth integration and successful settlement of refugees in Australia. 1.3 Problem Analysis Based on our background research on the settlement of refugees in Australia, we developed our initial problem tree. It was used as a draft during expert consultations. Its insightfulness helped us finding missing pieces if information and guided us to further research. Obviously the gap between refugee communities and local community together with local systems directly or either indirectly poses challenges to almost every problem we identified. Therefore, we identified community isolation as our focal problem. Consultation with refugee experts who have refugee backgrounds as well as remarkable experience from working with refugees settling in Victoria, particularly in South East of Melbourne, gave us clear picture of current settlement issues. Some of the case studies based on City of Greater Dandenong showed us a multiple dimensions of already identified problems. Our finalized problem tree, after sorting out the problems, is given below. Public misunderstanding was identified a crucial factor to discrimination. Some of the politicians and media play an important role in creating a negative image for refugees. For an example, if a refugee is accused to be involved in a crime scene, they flash the news by highlighting the background of this particular refugee community and paint a red color on the rest of the community without considering the consequences. In fact, these sort of careless actions widen the gap between local community and refugee communities. It is evident to see lack of confidence among refugees mainly due to cultural alienation, past refugee experience, language incompetency and lack of knowledge of local context and local systems. Considering the cultural alienation, it is happened to be the outcome of difference between the unique characteristics of different cultures. Australians can be identified with individualism, lack of social cohesion and materialism whereas most of the refugee communities can be characterized as collectivist societies. Mutual understanding is necessary to promote better understanding of these differences and that requires considerably a long time. Among the effects of community isolation, identity crisis is something which has profound effect even on other effects either directly or indirectly. But, normally, it doesn’t get enough attention from settlement programs. Acculturation means that members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of a dominant group. It can be reciprocal but in case of refugees it is only one way. It causes loss of separate ethnic identification. People feel a sense of powerlessness as a result. Psychosocial repercussions heavily damage human personality. As a result, refugees look at perceived threats, it can be either real or even imagined, in their lives and recognize it may require resources we don’t have. It includes threats to their social status, social esteem, acceptance within the society and threat to their self-worth. In long time, all these effects create social discord which is not good for both local community and refugee communities. 1.4 Objective Analysis At the end of the objective analysis, we came up with positive results, but not for each of the identified problem statements. We left a question mark for racism as it can’t be directly addressed. Nobody is going to accept that they are racist. Therefore, we decided to better leave it alone in the objective tree and reduce its impact indirectly from promoting public understanding. Objective tree was adjusted with some rearrangements with optimistic conditions. Alternative analysis pointed out the ongoing programs and projects by AMES, state government and other service providers in the area of employment, housing, language, education and future promises to improve current refugee and humanitarian programs. At this point, it is important to acknowledge Community Guides Program, Luv-A-Duck project and Ucan3 Youth Program of AMES as well as its support to social enterprises such as Sorghum Sisters, Cultural Cooks and Global Cafà ©, and support for community initiatives. We noticed lack of attention on the refugees’ rights and their cultural validity. It was finally decided to promote community engagement by increasing the level of confidence among refugees and creating social embrace with public understanding. Community Engagement will create cultural validity for refugee communities by providing them greater opportunities for social networking. Mutual understanding between local community and refugee communities would have positive impact in long-term and that would consequently bring social harmony in the City of Greater Dandenong.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Philosophy on education :: essays research papers

The philosophy that I feel the strongest connection to is Progressivism. In my educational journey the teachers that have made the most significant impact have been progressive. From K-12, I had two teachers who used the progressivism method and the lessons that I learned from them are still with me today. The progressive teachers express more individuality and creativity than others. Progressive educators relate material to real-life experiences that the learner can relate to. They generally conduct group activities rather than individual assignments. Progressivism opposes many of the concepts and practices associated with essentialism. My personal philosophy adopts ideas from both. Essentialists believe that children learn from traditional basic subjects such as reading, writing, history, math, and science. Progressives believe that learning is stimulated by tuning into problem solving skills. I believe that students learn most effectively when both concepts are utilized together. Many teachers that I have encountered were essentialist because this is what they were taught. The essentialism philosophy had been the dominant approach to education in America from the beginning of our history. However early in the twentieth century essentialism was criticized as being too rigid to prepare students adequately for adult life. Dewey was a major figure in the Pragmatic movement that later became known as progressivism. Every educator has their own thoughts and ideas about education, educational processes, and what they feel is the best way to educate students of today and tomorrow. These philosophies are built on the individual’s personal experiences and beliefs. My philosophy is like that of many new teachers, eclectic. There are ideas of many philosophies that I agree with and just as many that I disagree with. Teachers are as diverse as the students they teach. I believe that it takes a combination of several philosophies to reach each student in a classroom. Harris-Stowe State College’s Conceptual Framework advocates for effective teachers for a diverse society. Their roles include the user of technology, counselor, skilled instructor, communicator with parents, and diagnostic prescriber to name few of the criteria that would make for an effective teacher according to Harris Stowe’s framework. Successful teachers also have to utilize strictness, motivation, compassion, patience, honesty, and flexibility to educate the students that are a part of our diverse educational arena today. Teachers are not just responsible for their student’s educational growth. They have to be responsible for the growth of the whole child.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Nurse Leader Essay

Nursing leaders are crucial to any nursing organization. They motivate, empower, influence, and communicate the organization’s vision to create change within the organization. Respectable nursing depends on noble nursing leaders. This paper will highlight Florence Nightingale nursing leadership and describe her leadership characteristics. It will further depict the democratic style Florence Nightingale utilized throughout her career. Florence Nightingale was not only a nurse, she was a researcher, educator, and theorist. Her contributions to nursing and society are numerous. Florence Nightingale has been referred to as the â€Å"mother of modern nursing† (Johnson & Webber, 2005). Through her work and example, nursing became a respectable profession for women. She collected data through observation and research and applied that knowledge to social reform on the issues of public and military health and sanitation at home and abroad, rural hygiene, hospital planning, organization, and administration, rights of women and the poor, the definition of nursing, and the need for trained nurses and midwives to care for people in workhouses, hospitals, schools, penitentiaries, the military, and at home (Wellman, 1999). Due to the nature of her work and her commitment to improved patient outcomes by developing best practices based on observation and research, she should be considered the first public health nurse and champion of Evidence Based Practice. She is responsible for initiating the professional education of woman in nursing outside of the sisterhood and promoting their employment in hospitals and workhouses throughout England and abroad Florence Nightingale was a theorist. She developed her Environmental Model in 1859 and titled it Notes on Nursing: What It Is and What It Is Not based on her observations and experiences while treating the soldiers during the war (Johnson & Webber, 2005). Nightingale wrote: In watching disease, both in private houses and in public hospitals, the thing which strikes the experienced observer most forcibly is this, that the symptoms or the sufferings generally considered to be inevitable and incident to the disease are very often not symptoms of the disease at all, but of something quite different- of the want of fresh air, or of light, or of warmth, or of quiet, or of cleanliness, or of punctuality and care in the administration of diet, of each or of all of these (Nightingale, 1860, p. 2). Florence wrote these notes on practice, not intending them to be a manual on nursing, but ideas or women who take care of others because she felt that at some point, nearly every woman nursed somebody in her charge and it was up to them to manipulate the environment to help nature take its course (Nightingale, 1860). Her model includes 13 constructs with recommendations on implementing them. They are: ventilation and warming, health of houses, petty management, noise, variety, taking food, what food, bed and bedding, light, cleanliness of rooms and walls, personal cleanliness, chattering hopes and advises, and observation of the sick (Nightingale, 1860). Although Nightingale did not intend for her writings to become a teaching manual for nurses, her ideas were clearly applicable to teaching nurses how to care for the patient environment and was eventually used in her school to do just that (Johnson & Weber, 2005). Some of her hints on nursing are still applicable to practice today. They represent a holistic view of nursing by addressing the physical, mental, and social aspects of the patient environment. For instance, cleanliness of air, water, home, linen, and person are still important and helpful in preventing disease and promoting health. Also, adequate nutrition and sunlight are necessary for proper bodily function. Excessive noise and lack of variety can be harmful to mental health and must be remedied. Lastly, as nurses we still observe the sick, keep track of their vital signs, likes and dislikes, and monitor changes in their condition. All of this we record in the patient’s chart much like Nightingale did when she recorded her observations 150 years ago. Although Nightingale’s Environmental Model does not meet the guidelines of modern theory and has not spawned the same quantity of research as contemporary models, it can be said that her ideas have influenced nursing theorists and their respective models. Like all nurse theorists, Nightingale used her personal, spiritual, and educational experiences to guide her ideas (Johnson & Weber, 2005). The Living Tree of Nursing Theories was developed by nurses to illustrate the influence of Florence Nightingale on later nurse theorists. It proposes that person, environment, health, and nursing are the roots of the tree and Nightingale is the trunk supporting the branches, which are the modern theorists (Tourville & Ingalls, 2003). In essence, without Florence Nightingale’s work and ideas, nursing theory would not be the same as it is today. She created the fundamentals on which nursing theory is built. In fact, when comparing modern theories to the Nightingale Model many similarities can be appreciated. Henderson was concerned that the early nurse practice acts did not clearly cover what nursing is and therefore promoted an unsafe environment for the public. She helped define what nursing is and what it was not. Her definition reads: The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health, or its recovery (or to a peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will, or knowledge. And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible (Johnson & Webber, 2005, p. 133). A direct connection can be made to Nightingale’s model if one considers the changes in societal expectations and the growth of the nursing role from doer to helper in the 100 years between when the two theories were written. Henderson promotes helping the patient achieve independence through nursing assistance that Nightingale did not. Her 14 components of nursing are similar to Nightingale’s 13. They include: breathe normally, eat and drink adequately, eliminate body wastes, move and maintain desirable postures, sleep and rest, select suitable clothing, maintain normal body temperature, keep the body clean and well groomed to protect the integument, avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others, communicate with others, worship according to one’s faith, work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment, play or participate in various forms of recreation, and learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health using available health facilities (Johnson & Webber, 2005). Faye Abdellah’s theory titled, Patient-Centered Approaches, is just that, patient centered. Her 21 nursing problems are also similar to Nightingales 13 ideas and when advances in science and understanding of how the human body functions are taken into consideration a direct correlation can be established. Lastly, Sister Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model relies on the construct that the role of the nurse is to manipulate the environment to free patients so that they can adapt to other stimuli. Although this is a deviation from Nightingale’s theory, both nurses believed in the reparative process of providing the optimal environment for healing (Johnson & Webber, 2005). In conclusion, Florence Nightingale was instrumental in influencing nursing and society by opening the door for women to practice as nurses, promoting nurse education, guiding evidence based practice through her research and observations, by being a human rights advocate, and by working tirelessly to improve the health and quality of life for people throughout many nations. Florence Nightingale devoted her life in the pursuit of helping others.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Best Admissions Essay

0-4 Central Square Redhawks playing the 4-0 Christian Brothers Academy (CBA) on their homecoming. As a captain, you have to always be positive with your team and keep them going. You have to be the one to pick your brothers up when they need it, no matter how tragic something is. Football is a very physical sport as everyone knows, but what most people do not know is that it is actually just as much of a mental game. If a whole team comes together and believes they can do something, the odds are in their favor of succeeding. I knew that CBA was the best team around and had the most talent in the Central New York Area. Unfortunately, not everyone believed that we could succeed. By mid second quarter, we were down a whopping 42 points. We were sitting as a team in our auxiliary gym, feeling very disappointed. 0-5 is not the record we aimed for after working so hard in the weight room and on the practice field all summer. We had to make some important changes. Coach explained how we have a second chance. If we win our last two games (league games) we would go to sectionals. Going out with my parents and seeing all of my senior brothers were pretty emotional; though those emotions went away quickly though, as we knew what we had to do that night. To make sectionals, we had to win out, meaning not lose another game. Right before taking the field, we all came together in the locker room, and from that moment on everyone knew that we were going to make it happen. We all came together and each had the game of our lives. Film the next morning was exceptional, but we still got criticized for our mistakes as usual; to improve and get ready for next week. I was never so ready for a game. There is not a better game than playing our archrival CNS, it was a must-win to get into sectionals. The feeling was unbelievable; as our whole team knew we would go out and win that game. Pumping up my team with a speech that could make a grown man cry was the best way I knew to get us ready. When we first took the field in the second half, the frost on the before damp field felt like the frozen tundra. The breeze made it feel like winter already, with that Central New York arctic air creeping in. It felt like true football weather, as the second half was approaching. The start of the season wasn’t ideal, but leading a determined team to sectionals after starting 0-5 is the greatest feeling. We have made the best of what we could the last two games, as our hard work had paid off in a great way.

Freedom of speech Essay

Freedom of speech and the liberty to uphold oneÂ’s expression has long been the subject of many debates. It has taken centuries if not years for mankind to come to a point where many can easily voice their opinions without having to ponder over the consequences. But one should always know where to draw the line. Freedom of expression also needs to have its limits. Two of the masterminds who put forth their work on liberty and freedom of speech were John Stuart Mill and Jean-Jacque Rousseau. The concepts penned by Rousseau contradict those that were constructed by Mil; while the former focused on the functioning of the society as a whole, the latter advocated the rights of the individual to his freedom. Mill basically argument in his piece ‘On LibertyÂ’ allows for Utilitarian approach. His main idea was to give society and human nature a complete independence to mature and expand in infinite ways and direction. The main idea revolved around the kind of power that can be placed upon the individual by the society, and how that power was wrong unless exercised in self-defense. In particular, minorities were often the ones being oppressed. Mill pointed out that this tyrannical behavior was being supported by the major thinkers of that day. Public opinion followed the opinion of these thinkers and hence ended up doing the same. ‘On LibertyÂ’ sought to diminish the power the society had over an individualÂ’s freedom by giving that individual the freedom of speech. It was identified through the works that most people had precedent and preference which further provoked dissent and thus pressurized people. Mill also noted that there was no way of judging people on their inte rference into another personÂ’s private affairs. MillÂ’s idea of complete and total independence from society is contradicted in RousseauÂ’s works ‘The Social Contract,Â’ according to which man was restricted by the state and society that he existed in, once he became a part of the land he gave up the right to himself; society had a right upon the individual which he agrees to when he chooses to exist within a given society. This, he believed, was done for the greater good of the entire society; thereby his main focus was the society and not the individual, unlike Mill. For Rousseau, society itself was like a collective individual and that collective entity was sovereign and not a singular entity. He  allowed for individuals having their own aims and goals, but asserted that the will of the collective paved way for the greater good. By this definition he gives the society the power to act for the greater good and confirms that authority as absolute. He even goes as far as to recommend the death penalty for anyone who goes against this norm. Their ideas give us two different facets of life. Should one speak oneÂ’s mind or work for the greater good of the society?Mill believed in supporting diversity while condemning conformity by rejecting any form of manipulation that could be applied to a personÂ’s opinion or behavior. It was the revolutionary authorÂ’s belief that liberty forms the basis of much of the social progress that takes place. Through ‘On Liberty,Â’ it is asserted that freedom of speech is important primarily because to begin with, the opinion which most find disdainful maybe the correct one. Secondly, even if one voices a direly disproportionate view, refuting it will only help strengthen the general understanding of the topic amongst the masses. It was MillÂ’s belief that by continuously voicing thoughts, ideas and questions people kept society moving and defied stagnation. ‘The Social Contract,Â’ on the other hand goes onto state that the authority the ruler has over the state is like that of the father over his child. There is literally absolute control. Through RousseauÂ’s argument we are told that the mighty are the fittest to lead and decide what is best for the entire society. The wellbeing of the society depends on it functioning as one body, mind and soul. Each individual is part of the grand scheme which is built around the orders of the sovereign i.e. the rulers of the state. Mill charted three categories of freedom and asserted that the society was to abide by all three, if it were a free society. The first was freedom of thought and opinion, the second being the right to plan oneÂ’s life and future and the third to associate with other individuals on mutual grounds. The main idea behind this was that one should be able to pursue their own whims without hurting others in the process. Rousseau also has three implications of the contract. The first one being the fact that the conditions of the contract are same for everyone which is why everyone will collectively make it easier for everyone else to follow, secondly an individual cannot stand against the authority because he has given up that  right because he is a part of the state, and lastly, there is completely equality ergo the natural freedom that people enjoy stays intact, regardless of the social contract. It was in the ‘Discourse of InequalityÂ’ that Rousseau observed of inequality that the powerful has the choice between giving the masses an equal piece of the pie or letting the masses rot while they took everything for themselves. He was not an advocate of the powerful; he merely illustrated how the meek must always follow them because they have no other choice. The problem with RousseauÂ’s approach is that it completely rejects the claim that minorities or small groups may have on the society. If the masses chose to, they can quite literally annihilate any small sects that they wish without as much as a blink of an eye. In this regard, we are forced to side with MillÂ’s argument. However, ‘On LibertyÂ’ has its own faults because it focuses too much on the individualÂ’s needs without paying much heed to the society. Mill believed that the only instance where any one person or the society itself was justified in interfering with someoneÂ’s freedom was for their own self-preservation. In this way MillÂ’s only restriction on liberty was when it ended up harming other people, for which he advocated restraint. He was against the idea that meddling in someoneÂ’s affair. Diversity was not something to be toyed with, but the right to liberty was to be treated with respect. One has to also note that much of MillÂ’s work is at times vague on the limitations that can be placed on an individual. Another weak point is his extreme emphasis on the individual and not creating a balance between the individual and the society. While the individual was required to support the society he/she lived in, that by no means gave society any right to probe into their matters. As stated in the ‘Discourse of Inequality,Â’ “The difference between good and bad men is determined by public esteemÂ… The rank of citizens ought, therefore, to be regulated, not according to their personal merit Ââ€" for this would put it in the power of the magistrate to apply the law almost arbitrarily,” this shows that he believed that individuality would only hinder the laws that had been catered to the society as a whole. If each person was to be accounted for then the whole as Rousseau saw it, would come to a halt. Both authors present two extreme ways of life. while one advocates complete and total freedom, albeit not at the expense of others, the other goes on to suggest that freedom is restricted only is what the choices someone more powerful has selected for the majority. For freedom of speech both arguments do not fit. There needs to be a balance between the two. One cannot allow complete and total freedom of speech because inadvertently, whether it was intended or not, an individual may end up harming the society he/she lives in. If everyone began to voice a million different point of views at the same time there wouldnÂ’t be diversity, there would be chaos. Similarly, if the entire society was to follow the whims of a few men and women then society will not be able to move on. New ideas would never develop; people would never gain knowledge because knowledge would itself become restricted. Someone needs to stop talking to allow for the silence that precedes anotherÂ’s idea. History shows us that without speaking oneÂ’s mind, no real revolutions would have taken place, that being said, history also shows us how massive panic can sweep nations because of the freedom of speech that was given to the people. A balance between the two is needed. Social responsibility needs to be practiced with the freedom of speech; the two should be taken as a packaged deal and not separately. Works Cited Rousseau’s ‘Social Contract’Rousseau’s ‘Discourse on Inequality’Mill’s ‘On Liberty’

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Summarize William Paley's argument Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Summarize William Paley's argument - Essay Example He illustrates this through an examination of a watch. While taking a leisurely walk and one finds a stone and a watch on the ground, an examiner may be curious about those objects. He may think that the stone had been there forever because it was nature’s design, but the watch may have been there due to human intervention. This may get him to focus on the watch, which is a far more valuable thing than the insignificant stone. The watch, so carefully designed, had been created with a specific purpose, and being found on the ground may seem to be an unlikely circumstance since it does not belong there. Paley so meticulously describes each part of the watch to show that its interconnection with the other parts was intended, so that the whole system could work. Had one part stop working, then the whole thing would be worthless. In examining the watch, so many questions may come to mind, such as why it was created, who was behind the creation and for whom and for what purpose it w as created other than the obvious reason of telling time. Paley first argues that so much more can come out of one’s examination of the watch that it brings about more appreciation to the examiner. He may marvel at the genius behind its creation, taking notice that the creator is one of a kind to have crafted such a machine. He may even be humbled to know that he himself is unable to come up with a fraction of the idea of a watch! The existence whoever or whatever created that watch whether he is still living or have died in the distant past now becomes more concrete to Paley. On his second argument, he admits to the fallibility of the watch, that even with the best intentions of the creator to make it work efficiently at all times, it may still be vulnerable to defects. However, it does not lessen the examiner’s appreciation of such a gadget. He also argued that because of the intricate design of the watch there may be parts that could be missed in the examination, or parts that may still be in need of clarification as to its role in making the watch work. Not knowing about these details does not invalidate the examiner’s belief that all parts, including the unknown ones, work together harmoniously in contributing to the efficiency of the watch. Another argument Paley made was that the existence of the watch in the place found must have followed an order that caused it to land where it is which the watchmaker may not even be aware of. All the thinking that the examination of the watch entails can make the examiner wonder if it was placed there on purpose for him to think deeply, but Paley argues that it would be realized that there was no contrivance on that matter, but the curious nature of the watch’s existence in the particular situation was inherently bound to make one think deeply about it. Paley goes on to explain the â€Å"metallic nature† of the watch. No matter how overwhelming the watch and its inner workings is, i ts existence should just be accepted as a usual occurrence. Confident as the examiner may be with his knowledge of the world, examination of the watch may make him conclude that he does not and cannot know everything. Paley concludes that there are things in this world that the examiner will never know nor understand no matter how hard he tries, and he