Thursday, August 27, 2020

An Analysis of the Cinema of Short Films

An Analysis of the Cinema of Short Films Presentation Film as dream, film as music. No type of craftsmanship goes past standard cognizance as film does, directly to our feelings, profound into the sundown room of the spirit. Ingmar Bergman Film is one of only a handful hardly any mediums which have figured out how to effectively delineate the genuine truth of society when all is said in done and our lives specifically. As like other works of art, it delineates the different realties that one is confronted with. It investigates one of the most disposed of yet everlasting facts which each individual encounters and that is seclusion. Every individual yearns for social ties regardless of having a place with sorted out social orders; it is the thing that every last one of us is eventually diminished to. A Short film is a specialized portrayal initially instituted in the Indian film industry and utilized in the North American film industry in the early time of film. The depiction is presently utilized conversely with short subject. In spite of the fact that the North American definition for the most part alludes to films somewhere in the range of 20 and 40 minutes, the definition alludes to a lot shorter movies in Europe,Latin America and Australasia. InNew Zealand, for example, the portrayal can be utilized to depict any film that has length longer than one moment and shorter than 15 minutes. The North American definition likewise will in general spotlight considerably more on character though the European and Australasian structures will in general depend significantly more on visual show and unexpected developments. Along these lines, the North American structure can be comprehended to be an inference of the component movie structure, generally going about as a stage for competitor Hollywood chiefs. Somewhere else, short movies will in general work as features for cinematographers and business chiefs. (Short Film) A short film figures out how to tell a similar story as a full length highlight film, yet in a shorter term of time. It is portrayed by the chiefs impression of the current social, political and monetary conditions. A short film account is one which can without much of a stretch be made by individuals from varying backgrounds, it has all inclusive appropriateness. It empowers executives working on a little financial plan to recount to their accounts to the world. The ability in making a short film lies in imparting the message of the film to the crowd in a constrained timeframe. The changes in a short film are of basic significance. What I find fascinating is the manner by which any individual assimilates from their current social conditions and produce work which is viably transferable to most people. Another motivation to abide into this subject of exploration is that numerous youths and beginners start by making short movies and use it as a way to develop. As Daniel Wiernicki states, Short movies are regularly mainstream as initial steps into the film business among youthful producers. This is on the grounds that they are less expensive and simpler to make, and furthermore their length makes shorts bound to be viewed by monetary benefactors and other people who need some exhibit of a movie producers capacity. Numerous things can be accomplished by making a short film so are a perfect chance to get perceived and get into the business. (Wiernicki) Through this exposition, I mean to investigate the universe of short movies with regards to motion pictures which have won the Cannes Short Film Palme dOr(French:Palme dOr du court mãÆ'â ©trage), which is the most noteworthy prize given to a short film at the Cannes Film Festival. These short movies are a portrayal of various societies, belief systems, individuals, religion, financial foundation, and political contemplations and history from over the world that meet up on one stage and exhibit their specialty. The film isn't a craftsmanship which films life: the film is something among workmanship and life. In contrast to painting and writing, the film the two provides forever and takes from it, and I attempt to render this idea in my movies. Writing and painting both exist as craftsmanship from the very beginning; the film doesnt. Jean-Luc Godard Writing REVIEW Since our commencement, people have searched for various types of communicating. These articulations were as verse, writing, melodies, plays, moving, and so forth films are perhaps the most recent type of articulation that has been embraced by the individuals around the globe to depict their perspectives on their environmental factors, any occasion, or second that enthralls them and they need to demonstrate it to the world. The magnificence of the movies these days is that you can take away from the real world and present something past the human creative mind simultaneously one can introduce the unforgiving real factors of life that some dont think about. Movies as a vehicle of interchanges can be utilized to spread ones message or view over the world. History of Cinema (History of Film) The introduction of the movies occurred in 1878, when Eadweard Muybridge recorded a pony running in quick movement utilizing a progression of 24 stereoscopic cameras. With the improvement of innovation happened to the Silent period. Till the 1920s motion pictures were quiet, however now and again they were joined by performers, audio effects, or even analysis now and again. 1940s to 60s-War and Post War Cinema The wartime considered huge to be in the film as more center was given to publicity and enthusiastic movies. Movies like Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Citizen Cane were bits of this period. The virus war time carried motion pictures loaded up with neurosis, for example, Invading Armies of Evil Aliens and hostile to socialist films, for example, the Manchurian Candidate. The beginning of TV in the post war time likewise undermined the true to life industry as a mode of watching films. During this Period, Asian Cinema explicitly observed a brilliant age. The absolute most prominent perfect works of art of the Asian film were created during this period. These incorporate works like: Yasujiro OzusTokyo Story(1953),Satyajit RaysThe Apu Trilogy(1955-1959) andThe Music Room(1958),Kenji MizoguchisUgetsu(1954) andSansho the Bailiff(1954),Raj KapoorsAwaara(1951),Mikio NarusesFloating Clouds(1955),Guru DuttsPyaasa(1957) andKaagaz Ke Phool(1959), and theAkira Kurosawa films Rashomon (1950), Ikiru(1952),Seven Samurai(1954) andThrone of Blood(1957). 1970s: Post-old style cinemaThis term is utilized to depict the period following the decrease of the studio framework during the 1950s and 1960s and the finish of the creation code. During the 1970s, movie producers progressively delineated unequivocal sexual substance and indicated gunfight and fight scenes that included realistic pictures of wicked passings. The 1980s were loaded up with films discharging with spin-offs like Star Wars, Jaws, and Indiana Jones. The crowd additionally began to watch films on their VCR at home during this period. 1990s to introduce: Contemporary Cinema The 1990s saw the improvement of the free film with business achievement. Embellishments additionally administered during this period as it was by and large intensely utilized by the effective motion pictures of the period like: Terminator 2: Judgment Day(1991) andTitanic(1997). During the 2000s, narrative type of film making likewise rose as can be seen with the achievement of motion pictures, for example, March of the Penguins, and Fahrenheit 9/11. Increment in the issue of computerized circulation because of encroachment of copyrights, and theft additionally has arrived at statures during this period. Film in general during this decade has gotten progressively worldwide with unknown dialect films picking up notoriety in English-talking markets. Movies, for example, City of Gods (Portugese), Lagaan (Hindi), and the Passion of the Christ (Aramaic). Some have depicted the predominant style of the period as post present day in light of the fact that numerous contemporary movies are unopinionated, ahistorical, intertextual, and less attached to the shows of a solitary sort or culture. The transnational flow and kind hybridity of contemporary movies is exemplified by the expanding worldwide ubiquity of non-English talking film. (Film Studies, 2009) Significant Genres of Films: They are sufficiently wide to oblige for all intents and purposes any film at any point made, in spite of the fact that film classifications can never be exact. By disengaging the different components in a film and sorting them in types, it is conceivable to effectively assess a film inside its classification and take into consideration significant examinations and a few decisions on enormity. Movies were not so much exposed to class investigation by film students of history until the 1970s. All movies have at any rate one significant sort, in spite of the fact that there are various movies that are viewed as crossbreeds or half and halves with three or four covering class (orsub-kind) types that recognize them. (Dirks) Sorts in film can comprehensively be ordered under the accompanying orders: Setting prisonHistoryFuturisticFantasyWesternWarMood Show MelodramaTragedyComedy-dramaRomanceAction-experience Silliness/Comedy SlapstickBlack comedyScrewball comedyAction comedyRomantic comedySuspense HorrorMysteryThrillerTheme or theme CrimeArt FilmWarScience fictionalEspionageWesternSportsFantasyFilm NoirFormat MusicalDocumentaryLive actionAnimationBiographyHISTORY OF SHORT FILMS Short subject a name at first given to Short Films appeared during the 1910s when most of the element motion pictures were being made into recluse run-time releases. The name short subject is an American film industry term, which was doled out to any film inside 20 minutes in length or running two reels. Short subject movies could be satire, energized, or live activity. Extraordinary compared to other known clients of short subject was Laurel and Hardy and Charlie Chaplin. In 1930s came the log jam of the short subjects, fundamentally created by Warner Bros and Famous studios that claimed their own auditoriums to exhibit the movies. By 1995s, the ascent of TV prompted the strangulation of the no frills short and simultaneously the miss the mark. Since the 1960s, greater part of the chiefs of short movies have been exceptional studio undertakings or autonomous producers. Since the 1980s, short film term was being utilized for short subject. Short film as a term depicts the non-business film that is a lot shorter in time length than an element film/a similarity that can be attracted for short film to an element film

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Spirituality Media Log Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Otherworldliness Media Log - Article Example Understanding that Bipolar issue is a genuine sickness that can influence all parts of your life should be a positive persuading factor for accepting your medication as recommended by a doctor. Liquor recuperation can be troublesome and discouraging. Having another disease included can make it much more so. View the assist you with accepting from your bipolar drug as another beginning that can support your proceeding with liquor recuperation. Moving toward the finish of life is something that we as a whole will confront. There are numerous ways that families manage end of life issues. Every family and their adored one that is confronting the finish of life have one of a kind needs. There are assets inside and past the family that can help address these issues. Frequently, people approaching the finish of life are worried that those they abandon won't recall them. As one approaches the finish of life, it is a decent chance to impart stories and recollections to the family that has brought the entirety of the members happiness. This can help guarantee everybody included that recollections will proceed significantly after the beset individual is perished. Outside offices, for example, hospice associations can assist with watching out for the physical and enthusiastic worries of the perishing. In some cases thinking about the wiped out can be a genuinely and sincerely depleting process for the family. Home nursing and hospice care can help assuage a portion of these weights. Psychotherapy is an expansive term and can be use from numerous points of view. A wide range of experts uphold different strategies for correspondence and treatment. These experts and specialists have a similar objective, nonetheless. This objective is improved psychological wellness for the patient. Patients in psychotherapy can feel that the specialist or the advisor is the way to them defeating their difficulties. While the specialist is indispensable to the procedure, genuine recuperating must originate from inside. Finding the profound in psychotherapy is an incredible method to help upgrade the mending experience. Otherworldliness permits

Case study in space flight class Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

In space flight class - Case Study Example As per P.T. Crutzen, people today are in another geologic age, â€Å"Anthropocene,† where they are noteworthy and clever, having the intensity of reshaping the planet’s face (Board 2007). Space assumes a significant job in looking to comprehend the conduct of the earth and the items in it. The existent wonders on the substance of the earth prompted understanding the world we live. Highlights, for example, the sun, stars, and the moon raised the consideration of researchers to examine Space. Earlier the presentation of the idea of room in the science world, space science assumed an incredible job in looking to comprehend the progressing outside earth. The longing to investigate Space came about because of the concern of event of different calamities. Individuals accepted that they could adjust these happenings and spare life and property from harm. Along these lines, they could likewise be in a superior situation with respect to understanding the occurrence and presence of marvels. With respect to Earth Science, Space would assist researchers with improving their productivity in foreseeing cataclysms, for example, volcanic emissions, floods, seismic tremors, torrents, among others. It could assist them with increasing a lot of information, and empower them anticipate these disasters. Space applies to different fields, as portrayed, and its comprehension can help dispense with the existent vulnerability among individuals concerning the world. Development of physical highlights was likewise an indispensable gauge in the utilizations of Space. These variables prompted the advancement of an enthusiasm to investigate space. It would thusly be of numerous advantages later on (some of which we appreciate today) (Board 2007). Space has an assortment of uses in Earth Science today. The world has had the option to handle probably the most perilous issues, coming about because of the interminable concern and association in space investigation. Space science helps estimate cataclysms, for example, tremors, shrouds, floods before their event. Along these lines,

Friday, August 21, 2020

Sociology and Globalisation Essay -- Sociology Essays

Numerous students of history and sociologists have recognized a change in the financial procedures of the world and society as of late. There has been a broad increment in improvements in innovation and the economy in general in the twentieth century. Globalization has been perceived as another age in which the world has formed into what Giddens recognizes to be a â€Å"single social system† (Anthony Giddens: 1993 ‘Sociology’ pg 528), because of the ascent of association of different nations on each other, in this way influencing for all intents and purposes everybody inside society. In this exposition I will give a point by point clarification of what sociologists mean by the term ‘globalisation’ and how they have attempted to clarify it. Globalization can be understood from various perspectives. Numerous sociologists portray it as a period in which national power is vanishing because of an innovative insurgency, making reality be basically unessential. It is a monetary insurgency, which Roland Robertson alludes to in his book ‘Globalisation’ 1992 pg 8, as â€Å"the pressure of the world and the escalation of awareness of the world as a whole†. It is contended that globalization permits the world to turn out to be progressively increasingly joined together, with individuals increasingly aware of ethnic, cultural, civilizational and singular parts of their lives. While investigating the subject of globalization, sociologists have arranged the term into three segments, financial, political and social globalization. They have done this all together clarify what it implies. I have pointed inside this exposition to clarify every one of the three sorts of globalization so as to reply the article question. I plan to focus principally on the monetary an... ...e† them (Marsh, ‘Making Sense of Society’, 2000 pg 487). What we can comprehend all in all, is the thing that sociologists mean by the term globalization is that it is a significant, powerful procedure which is influencing the world massively. It appears from what I have inspected so far about globalization that there may come a period in the long run, when a world government appears, where universal imbalances will continuously remain and where social clash will consistently be dynamic. This is since the approaches that drive the globalization procedure are to a great extent focussed on the requirements of business. Globalization is a proceeding with process which should be overseen admirably. It is a vital improvement which has and consistently will cause noteworthy social changes inside society and the world overall.

Important Facts About Short Essay Topics

Important Facts About Short Essay TopicsThe most important fact you need to know about writing a short essay is that there are no specific short essay topics. You don't have to find one and only use it. The topics may not be helpful, but your editor will get confused if you choose one for each paragraph. Here are some general tips on finding topics for your essay.In order to make your essay interesting and well-written, you must write in such a way that the main points are clear. This means that the readers should be able to follow what you're saying. The reader should be able to understand what you mean by the information you provide in the essay. This is the only way you can present a well-written argument.Even though your article is an argument, it still needs to make your point. The reader should be able to connect your words with their meaning. For this reason, you need to choose a topic that brings up important points.If you are able to make your point clear and make your reade rs understand the main points, they'll be able to relate your opinions to their own. This is a very important skill that will give you the best chance of being accepted by a publishing house.You need to be able to come up with a topic that can be related to your opinion without overloading the essay. Choose a topic that will be discussed in a few sentences; try to come up with a topic that has less words and is more focused.Choose a topic that has not been covered in the academic paper or book. In other words, you want to be able to come up with a topic that has not been covered before. This way, your readers will see your essay as unique and different.Atopic that has been covered before being easier to deal with. You can use your experience as a professor or an author in your essay. Just be sure that you are going over a topic that you have written before.When you are considering writing an essay, it is a good idea to find one or two topics you can use. Keep in mind that it is poss ible to cover several topics in one essay. It is also easy to include many topics in one essay if your topic is chosen well.

Sunday, June 28, 2020

Music - stimulus for learning across the primary curriculum - Free Essay Example

The teaching of music in Primary Schools is an area of education that has seen dramatic changes in the last few decades. From a situation where music teaching was almost non-existent in some schools, and where in others young children were frequently alienated from music by being banned from choirs or told they were ‘tone-deaf’, music is now strongly represented within the National Curriculum. Current thinking emphasises that there is no such thing as a completely unmusical child, and the curriculum has moved from an emphasis on performance – often for the relatively gifted only – and passive listening to encompass composition, performance and critical appraisal part of the musical education of every child. This study considers music within the broader context of Primary education, considering the benefits of integrating music into other areas of the curriculum, and looking at the implications for learning bearing in mind that music in itself has been linked with improved behaviour and concentration (Glover and Ward 1998: 14), and thus may be considered conducive to a desirable learning environment for all subjects, and, furthermore, to the social and mental well-being of Primary school children. The development of modern Primary music education can be traced back to the introduction of the National Curriculum in 1987, although music at the time was considered low priority, and was not included in the Curriculum until 1991. When the National Curriculum was introduced, many teachers questioned its viability: it moved away from the topic-based teaching which had embraced a number of subjects without specifying distinct areas such as history or music or language. It was felt that by focusing on the topic rather than specific academic subjects, lessons held more interest for children. However, a number of educationalists had criticised the topic-based approach because of its lack of objectives and limited focus on specific achievement, and the National Curriculum sought to address this. Today, best practice is considered to be somewhere between these two approaches: subjects are distinct from each other, but a focus on the links between different disciplines is encouraged, and it is in this environment that incorporating music into cross-curricular activities can be particularly beneficial. The past few decades have seen a significant change in the delivery of music education. The Plowden Report (1967) recognised the importance of ‘non-specialist’ teachers being able to deliver music teaching : â€Å"It is to the musical education of the teacher that attention must first be given†¦ Comparatively few primary schools†¦can, for s ome time to come, expect to have a music specialist as a full-time member of the staff and it is even doubtful whether a specialist responsible for most of the teaching is desirable. It is the musical education of the non-specialist which, in our view, is the key to the problem.†(Web link: Plowden Report para. 690) It was over two decades before this thinking began to be properly implemented. In the meantime, schools relied on music specialists –teachers who were trained musicians, almost always skilled pianists –and this led, at best, to a detachment of music-teaching from the rest of the curriculum, delivered by the class teacher, and, at worst (where a specialist was unavailable), marginalised or non-existent music education. The development of a National Curriculum for music which is intended to be delivered by classroom teachers without any music specialisation has allowed it to be linked with other work more easily.More significantly still, delivery by the class teacher who, through far more exposure to the class than the ‘once-a-week music teacher’,understands the dynamic of the class and the individual pupils’situations, enables that teacher to deliver music teaching in a way that engages the class more readily and meets their specific needs. In 1991, the National Curriculum for Music was developed quickly,with limited research and, in many areas of music teaching, no accepted‘good practice’ that could be incorporated into the plan. In 2000, anew National Curriculum for Music was introduced that could take account of what had been learnt through the 1990s. The announcement of the government’s Music Manifesto in July 2004 suggested a further commitment to music education, with the aim that every child should have the opportunity to learn a musical instrument. Although this could be considered a move away from classroom music teaching, with the requirement for peripatetic instrumental tea chers and the demands made on limited school time, the potential outcome is a future generation who consider a wide range of music to be part of their culture and experience, rather than something for their more gifted or more affluent classmates. In order to consider how music should be used across the Primary curriculum, some thought should be given to the ways in which children learn. There are various theories of learning: at the extremes are maturation, which suggests children should be left to learn through their own experiences, and behaviourism, which advocates learning through instruction from others. Many theories consider learning to be a combination of the two: Vygotsky’s theories reconcile the two approaches. Jean Piaget’s theories tend towards maturation and have been influential in education, though probably more so in the sciences than the arts. Through many years of observation, Piaget drew the conclusion that children establish a ‘framewor k’ within which they construct their vision of the world. As they experience something new, they try to explain it from the perspective of the framework (assimilation). Only if they cannot will their framework develop in some way(accommodation). Much of the experience Piaget considers should be self-generated and not instructional from teachers, parents or other authority figures. Piaget proposed four key stages of learning. For primary school teaching, the second and third stage are most relevant, covering the ages of around 2 to 7 (Pre-Operational) and around 7 to 11 (Concrete Operational) respectively. There is a lack of logic and a focus on the self in the Pre-operational stage, while in the Concrete operational stage, children are able to apply knowledge logically, manipulate information and understand the concept of others’ perceptions as well as their own. While Piaget’s theories are popular, many educators have reservations about them, particularly w ith regard to the specific age ranges linked to the stages. It is widely considered that such developments vary greatly in respect of age from child to child .Criticism of the Plowden Report has at times focused on its emphasis onPiagetian approaches (Gillard 2005). However, Piaget’s ideas are applied widely, including in music education, with its frequent focus on working together in ensembles (which helps develop understanding of others’ perspectives), or experimenting with the sounds that different classroom instruments can make (learning by experience). The behaviourist approach has lost favour in education: certainly in music, where it would be characterised by passive listening and instruction, it has been superceded by a more critical and analytical approach. Pavlov, famous for teaching dogs to salivate at the sound sofa bell, was a key figure in the development of behaviourist theory, and it has some place in musical education: for example, historical or cul tural context of a piece of music is best explained by the teacher before pupils explore its musical qualities. Vygotsky’s theories, which suggest children learn by a combination of experience and instruction are perhaps more relevant to primary music education. Vygotsky took into account the social and cultural environment, particularly the influence of parents. He proposed that children’s development arose as a result of interactions with others. Vygotsky’s theories provide a link to theories regarding the learning of expression through the spoken word. A number of academic shave researched the area of music as a language which might be learned in a similar way to speech. In Barrett (1996), various research into the learning of oral language is explored to construct a framework in which successful learning of music might take place. Key to it is immersion: just as language is practiced all around the child, so too should music be, with parents demonstrat ing good practice as well as teachers. This parallels the Suzuki method of instrumental learning,where the parent learns alongside the child and reinforces at home what has been taught. Barrett endorses a method which leans towards maturation – â€Å"the learner is encouraged to assume responsibility for his own learning,with frequent opportunities provided for the continuous practice of skills† (Barrett 1996:72), with â€Å"the teacher available to assist when help is requested† (ibid). Yet there is also an element of behaviourism: â€Å"The experience of explaining, or teaching an item to another is often instrumental in clarifying the issues within the mind of the learner† (ibid: 69). In Mills’ exploration of the development of musical skills in the primary years (Mills 1996), a New Zealand study is discussed which supports Barrett’s theories. Through extensive fieldwork, Roger Bucktonfound that Polynesian children in New Zealand sc hools sung with moreconsistent vocal accuracy than those from European families. Millsattributes this to the difference in culture: â€Å"[Polynesian] children sing with their families and in church from anearly age. Children of European ethnic background†¦often arrive atschool with little background in singing.† (Mills 1996: 119) As will be seen, these various schools of thought have implications forboth the study of music and of other subjects, and hence forcross-curricular activity too. To consider music’s use across the curriculum, we must first consider its place as a subject in its own right. The National Curriculum addresses the following core areas: Performing skills: controlling sound through singing and playing Composing skills: creating and developing musical ideas Appraising skills: responding to and reviewing music Listening and applying knowledge and understanding. The scope of the National Curriculum for music is broad. By the end ofKey Stage 1, pupils are expected to reach a standard where they arecapable of organising sound, of using symbols to represent music, ofperforming with an awareness of others and of responding to the mood ofmusic. Beyond the practical, they are also expected to learn aboutvarious music from history and around the world – this provides auseful opportunity for cross-curricular work – and to understand thefunctions of music such as for dance, again offering cross-curricularopportunities. This kind of background knowledge continues to form a core part of thecurriculum at Key Stage 2, with the practical element further expandedthrough ICT, with the statutory requirement to â€Å"capture, change andcombine sounds†. Technological developments and greater affordabilitymean this is an area that has been practical to include in thecurriculum only in recent years, and for many teachers unfamiliar with music technology, this creates an additional challenge. However, it isagain a practical area to apply cross-curricular teaching in. At Key Stage 2, pupils are expected to develop a sense of musicalexpression along with more advanced ensemble skills. They should alsobe able to evaluate and suggest improvements to pieces of music by thetime they leave Primary School. This corresponds to a time when pupilsare developing their own tastes, influenced by a range of externalfactors such as family (particularly older siblings), or artistsspecifically marketed at ‘tweens’. An awareness of such subcultures canhelp the Primary school teacher to relate elements of the music lessonto them to create a particular resonance with pupils with suchinterests. A 2002 study by a team of researchers from Southampton Roehampton and Keele Universities carried out as part of the QCA’s (Qualifications andCurriculum Authority) Curriculum Development Project in the Arts andMusic Monitori ng Programme produced some interesting findings(Hargreaves, Lamont, Marshall and Tarrant 2002). Many of the study’ssubjects were KS2 pupils. Across the study, which used interviews andquestionnaires to look at pupils’ and teachers’ attitudes to andengagement with school music teaching, children responded positively tothe performance aspect of the curriculum. Although many spent a gooddeal of time listening to music outside school (particularly popularmusic on the radio or on walkmans), little reference was made tolistening and appraising music in school music lessons, nor tocomposition. Given the government’s commitment to enabling every child to havethe opportunity to learn an instrument, it is perhaps surprising thatonly 17% of children thought this was something a school should offer,although the majority were learning or wanted to learn an instrument.While instrumental lessons may seem to offer limited scope forcross-curricular activities, and inde ed may take up additional teachingtime, their indirect effect on other subjects is positive as thelearning of an instrument helps develop a range of skills includingco-ordination, concentration and self-expression. The Southampton/Keele study noted that a number of teachersexpressed concern over time and financial resources available toimplement a music programme. The time constraints suggest thatcombination of subjects through cross-curricular activity may be anattractive solution if managed appropriately. The study also showed that the use of external music specialists inPrimary music teaching was widespread and, furthermore, help fromspecialists was seen as vital to the success of the music curriculum.The aim that music teaching should be deliverable by non-specialistteachers is still not met entirely: â€Å"Technical demands of the curriculum are mentioned by many teachers:even those with musical qualifications and expertise feel unable tocover the entire spectrum of the music curriculum.† (Hargreaves,Lamont, Marshall and Tarrant 2002: Section 3) This is not expanded on. Teachers responded positively to theschemes of work, particularly as a tool for less musically-experiencedteachers, but it is possible that the breadth of the music curriculumis a challenge for teachers to deliver. The government’s increasedfocus on learning an instrument is likely to maintain this situation.It will be interesting to see whether, in future years, the generationof teachers that has benefited from the National Curriculum for Musicas pupils and who have had more opportunity for learning an instrumentthan previous generations of Primary teachers find it easier to deliverclassroom music lessons. The response from schools in the Southampton/Keele survey wasoverwhelmingly positive and it appears that the National Curriculum hasbrought classroom music teaching out of the margins by demonstratingthe many benefits of musical activity, notably those beyond mu sicalskills such as the social aspects and positive impact on behaviour andconcentration. In addition to focusing purely on music for a period within thetimetable, many teachers practise combining music teaching with othersubjects. This has roots in pre-National Curriculum teaching, wherelearning was frequently cross-curricular and based on a topic. Incertain situations, it appears that music is highly relevant in theteaching of another subject. This section explores the opportunitiesavailable and shows how there may be significant benefits for learningin all subjects in a cross-curricular lesson. Glover and Ward warn that there is a danger of attempting tocombine subjects in a way that has little benefit. They particularlydraw attention to themed songs which have no musical relevance: â€Å"In a topic on ‘food’†¦young children might be encouraged to sing ‘FoodGlorious Food’†¦ the links with the topic are spurious†¦the song may be a poor musical choice for a class who find difficulty with pitching thedemanding interval leaps.† (Glover and Ward 1998: 153-4) Glover and Ward also draw attention to the practice of linkingcomposition too closely to topic work, so that children are invited tocreate the sound of, for example weather, producing sound effectsrather than an appropriately-structured and thought-out piece of music(Glover and Ward 1998: 154). Bearing these points in mind, how can music teaching be productively combined with other subject areas? History lends itself to an exploration of music from other times. Astudy of the Tudors might incorporate a look at Tudor instruments andmusic, which provides further opportunities to consider Tudor life.Many pieces are dances, and pupils might participate in a dance of theera. Pupils can find out more about the function of the music, aboutwho would have been able to afford the instruments and who would haveplayed them. This might link with study of lif e for the wealthycontrasted with the majority of the population or of leisure pursuitsof the time. This helps reinforce what has been learnt about life inTudor times, while consideration of the stylistic qualities of themusic benefits musical understanding. Geography provides the chance to consider world music within its socialand cultural context rather than in isolation. Glover and Ward advocateexploring various musical styles from the same geographical area: â€Å"A little research goes a long way towards getting things intoperspective. Children will be interested in the detail and thedifferences between different music within a culture.† (Glover and Ward1998: 160) Through exploration of the elements which go to make a particularmusical style, children can learn about musical devices such as dronesor call-and-response structures. Simultaneously, by understanding therole of a type of music within a particular culture, they gain abroader understanding of different s ocieties. Science lessons can provide a framework for the study of soundproduction. Through a focus on a range of instruments and othermaterials and their sonic properties (the production method of thesound, its qualities and pitch range, for example) causes pupils tofocus on the detail of sound. Composition activities linked toexperiments with sound production are enhanced: pupils consider thescope of their instruments in a broader range of musical parameters.Their scientific understanding of sound also benefits. Maths has particularly strong links with music, and various studieshave established a link between aptitude in maths and musical ability.Rhythm in music has a significant mathematical component: an obviousexample is the US note-naming system, where a crotchet is aquarter-note, a quaver an eighth-note and so on. Musical patterns offerthe opportunity to explore principles of symmetry, by playing a patternin its original form and in reverse. The inversion of a melody ca n belikened to reflection. A number of composers have incorporatedmathematical concepts into their music: many of these are rathercomplex for consideration at primary level, although the works ofXenakis may be useful for older Primary pupils. The construction of aparabola through a series of overlaid straight lines is visible in someof Xenakis’ scores, with lines performed as a string glissandi (slidesthrough pitch). Xenakis’ involvement with architecture, again using thescience of curves, may also be linked to lessons in this subject area.In addition to obvious connections with mathematics, Xenakis’ scoresare a useful example of how modern composers develop their own notationsystems and graphic scores, which may inspire children in compositionactivities. Literacy also has a close affiliation with music. The inflections inspeech are melodic and it has distinct rhythmic qualities. The settingof text to music draws on these connections. Explorations of language and words – for example, rhyming words or short poem – can be takenfurther by turning them into chants or songs. A recent trend which underlines the links between language andmusic is the frequency with which children write a ‘rap’ rather than apoem. This could be taken further with a look at rap music payingattention to the dialect, fulfilling the requirement of the NationalCurriculum for English that children understand about language variety.However, any rap music should be selected with care due to subjectmatter and vocabulary in many rap tracks being unsuitable for use inschool. Narratives in literacy can also be explored through music, but itis important that children understand the concept of music without aprogramme and can link musical devices to punctuation: a cadence is afull stop, a musical phrase correlates with a spoken phrase (Glover andWard 1998: 166). The National Curriculum for Physical Education promotes the explorationof music through dance, and schools have a long tradition of music andmovement lessons. Dance and music together are included in thegovernment’s Schemes of Work: â€Å"Unit 31†¦In this unit children focus on popular dance styles ofdifferent eras. They explore a range of dances, using step and gesturepatterns, body shapes, contact work, and contrasts in dynamic andrhythmic patterning. They learn more about both dance style and music.†(Weblink: Schemes of Work: PE/dance) This unit has links to history and possibly geography too, so is truly cross-curricular. Response to music through movement is pertinent throughout our culture(the inclination to tap a foot to the beat, for example), and in youngchildren a physical response to music is common. Ben-Tovim and Boydinclude this as a criterion in a ‘Musicality Test’ to be applied whenconsidering whether a child should learn a musical instrument(Ben-Tovim and Boyd 1995: 18). Possibly the most difficult sub ject to establish effectivecross-curricular links in is art. While music and art can be seen asclosely connected, they both function in a similar role in terms ofproviding an outlet for self-expression through organisation ofelements, whether visual or aural. The temptation to play a piece ofmusic as an ‘inspiration’ for painting may result in the childinventing a programme for the music which is then represented in apicture. One must question the benefits of this regarding the verylimited extent to which it might benefit musical understanding, andalso its unintentional promotion of the idea that music must beprogrammatic. Also, is the music a background element compromising thechild’s concentration on the art, or vice versa? Overall, there is a wide range of opportunity to combine music withother subjects to the benefit of both curriculum areas concerned. Thepractical applications discussed above also fulfil a balanced model ofinstructional teaching and self- discovery: for example, the teacherpresents a recording of music from another era or land, and providesbackground information, but the pupils are encouraged to explore itscharacteristics for themselves. This promotes a blend of thebehaviourist and maturation theories discussed earlier. The opportunities for mutual support between subjects throughcross-curricular teaching demonstrates the importance of classroomteachers having adequate support and training to incorporate music intoother lessons; it is even more relevant in cross-curricular teachingthan in music lessons. By ensuring this is the case, benefits may beseen across almost all curriculum subjects. In addition to combining music with other subjects in order to teach itdirectly, music has further applications in the curriculum. The connections between language and music have a further benefit thatcan be utilised across various subjects. Text set to music is moreeasily committed to memory, and the use of songs to lear n key facts iswidespread – for example, to learn numbers or the alphabet.Number-learning by song is effective, as one SEN teacher using singingin Maths comments: â€Å"Even if pupils don’t understand the concept of numbers, they can sing up to 10†, (Maynard 2004) Colwell’s research with Kindergarten children in the US (Colwell 1994)demonstrated that when children practised a reading text set to music,they read it with greater accuracy than a group who had practised thetext without its musical setting. However, although this researchsupports the findings of previous experiments, it used a sample of only27 subjects. Research undertaken by Dr Frances Rauscher, a former professional’cellist with a Ph.D. in Psychology, and her colleagues suggested alink between playing music to a group of subjects and a simultaneousincrease in their spatial-temporal reasoning abilities (Rauscher, Shawand Ky 1993). Since then, further research has been undertaken whichboth supports and questions these results. A further study in 1997 on preschool children showed a 34% increasein spatial-temporal reasoning tests among children who had receivedprivate piano and singing lessons compared to those who had not –including a group who had received private computer lessons. Theconclusion drawn by the researchers was that learning music was ofbenefit to learning potential in maths and science subjects, and moreso than computer skills. This research raises many questions. Firstly, it is widely thoughtthat the ideal age to begin learning an instrument is no younger than 7: â€Å"the second most common factor in musical failure was starting at thewrong time – too early†¦a six year old who goes on and on about wantingto play a musical instrument is experiencing the promptings of hisdeveloping instinct to make music, but he is not yet ready to do muchabout it.† (Ben-Tovim and Boyd 1995: 20) . It is therefore somewhat surp rising that very young children engagedwith their music lessons in a way that increased their more generalmental capabilities. This has clear implications for the government’sMusic Manifesto; could earlier instrumental learning have a greaterbenefit in other subjects? The second issue is the findings themselves: as the computerlessons had little impact on test results while the music lessons madea significant difference, it is clear that private teaching alone isnot the cause of the improvement; rather it is the learning of music.However, it does not necessarily follow that by simply listening tomusic, a child’s academic potential in mathematics or any other subjectis enhanced. Rauscher’s research has created a great deal of interest bothwithin more general media and among psychologists and other academics.It has, to some extent, been mythologised with the label â€Å"The MozartEffect†. Rauscher’s findings have been disputed by a number of aca demics.Heath and Bangerter (2004) argue that the original 1993 research, oncollege students, showed only a small effect which was not prolonged,and that a number of research projects have failed to replicate theresults. They also demonstrated a link between the level of attainmentin various states in the US and the amount of local newspaper coveragepromoting the Mozart Effect: the lower the attainment, the morecoverage. Heath and Bangerter attributed this to the recognition of aparticular problem and the possibility of a ‘quick fix’. In a number ofstates local government reflected media endorsement by subsidisingprojects to expose children to Mozart recordings, but it appears therestill needs to be more research in the area Rauscher herself has moved to clarify her research: â€Å"Our results on the effects of listening to Mozarts Sonata for TwoPianos in D Major K. 448 on spatial-temporal task performance, havegenerated much interest but several misconceptions†¦ the most common ofthese [is] that listening to Mozart enhances intelligence. We made nosuch claim. The effect is limited to spatial-temporal tasks involvingmental imagery and temporal ordering.† (Rauscher 1999) However, a number of studies have shown some evidence of a Mozarteffect in various different environments. Most relevant is Ivanov andGeake (2003) which found a Mozart Effect and a Bach Effect on Primaryschool children listening to music while undertaking a paper-foldingtask (again, this is demonstrating spatial-temporal competence ratherthan intelligence). This study also established that general musictraining was not a factor in the results – this suggests that playingmusic has a temporary effect on reasoning, and might not enhancelearning in other subjects subseq uently unless music is played on thatoccasion. The Mozart Effect continues to be debated by academics because ofthe conflicting research findings. However, it is notable that limitedresearch has been done on the elements of music which might contributeto the effect, although reference to an unspecified study by Dr WilliamThompson (Weblink: Research relating to the ‘Mozart Effect’ (2)) notesthat the effect is evident when lively classical music, includingMozart and Schubert, is played, but not with slower music by Albinoni. Many teachers report using background music in a variety of situations with positive results: â€Å"For many years I have used music during lessons. It helps youngchildren relax in handwriting lessons, and helps their concentrationduring imaginative writing sessions.† (Hume 2004) It appears that there is certainly some evidence supporting playinglively classical music in a variety of class situations to boostpupils’ performan ce, and a number of teachers are using backgroundmusic in class and feel it to be beneficial. However, much research isstill needed in this area. Music teaching has a variety of uses within the curriculum for pupilswith special educational needs (SEN). The term SEN is used to refer topupils with special needs arising from a wide range of situations andconditions such as physical disability, emotional and behaviouralproblems, autism, school phobia, a background of abuse or stress ordyslexia. Many of these children may be academically gifted, others mayfind very basic concepts challenging. Music in SEN, as a result,fulfils a range of functions. For all SEN music lessons, there is the potential to cover areasincluded in the National Curriculum: listening and appraising,composing and performing. The nature of SEN teaching means that thesemay have to be adapted according to the needs of pupils. Cross-curricular activity can be useful tool: for example, whilepupils with concentra tion problems may struggle to sit and listen tomusic, they may be more receptive if asked to draw a picture respondingto music that is playing while they do so, although there can be adifficulty with children focusing on their art and barely noticing themusic. Perry (1995: 56) suggests using a 5 minute excerpt introducedwith a story – thus using literacy – to create an initial engagementbefore moving on to children drawing. Music may also be used as a form of therapy. For younger children,activities undertaken while standing in a circle are of particularbenefit in helping child a child with attention difficulties to engage.An activity might involve passing a teddy around a circle while musicplays until it stops, at which point the child holding the teddy has achance to play briefly on an instrument. The teddy helps those childrenwho might be resistant to the activity to accept it (Weblinks: Becta). For autistic children, music can contribute to establishing arout ine. With songs, for example, for lunchtime, for playtime and forgoing-home time, where the same piece of music is used consistently forthe same activity, singing can help maintain the sense of stability androutine which is particularly important for those with autism (Maynard2004). While musical activities can benefit children with specialeducational needs, care must also be taken not to cause a detrimentaleffect. Packer (1996: 136) identifies that certain methods of musicmaking can create stress for a child who is particularly sensitive toit, quoting Nordoff and Robbins, pioneers in music therapy. Sheexpresses concern, however, that fear of causing harm can eliminate anychance of benefit if it results in less music being used in SENteaching. The role of music in SEN teaching effectively falls into twodifferent categories: music to try and lessen the SEN – for example,for children with behavioural problems – and music as a means offulfilling a number of needs fo r children whose underlying condition –say, visual impairment – will not be improved by the musical activities. For children who struggle to engage with mainstream activitiesbecause of a condition such as visual impairment or dyslexia, music hasan important role because many musical activities place them on anequal footing with pupils without special educational needs. This canenhance confidence and fulfil social needs. It is important to include deaf children in musical activities.Those with no hearing can sense vibrations and pulses, and theopportunity to play an instrument can have a significant effect on ahearing-impaired or profoundly deaf child. The organisation Music andthe Deaf, founded by Paul Whittaker, a gifted organist who isprofoundly deaf, has undertaken a number of projects to promote musicin the classroom for deaf children (Weblink: Music and the Deaf). Gifted children also fall within the category of SEN teaching, andcan prove a particular cha llenge in classroom music teaching. It is notunusual to find a Primary School pupil who has achieved AssociatedBoard Grade 5 or 6 on an instrument and for the non-specialist musicteacher this raises the issue of their own expertise being scrutinised.In practice, many of the activities in the QCA’s schemes of work adaptwell to cater for children of a wide variety of standards: for example,a composition or improvisation exercise allows each child to perform atthe level of their choosing. With many Local Education Authoritiesrunning Saturday music schools and similar activities, the provisionfor the musically-able pupil is often more than adequate. In conclusion, it is clear that music teaching in Primary schools has awide range of potential applications, including learning specificmusical skills, the reinforcement and exploration of concepts in othersubject areas, the enhancement of social aspects of school and apositive impact on behaviour and concentration. However, his torical neglect of classroom music teaching has resulted inthe ideal situation, of all Primary School teachers confident andcompetent in the delivery of classroom music lessons, still lacking inmany schools. This creates a situation where music is being taught veryinclusively, with the aim of engaging all pupils and the belief thatall pupils are capable of musical expression, by teachers with littleor no experience of being included themselves. The effect on a child’sconfidence of being told they are ‘no good’ at music, or of not beingallowed to join in with their peers in singing or playing activities,can have a lasting effect and it might be that issues with Primaryschool music teaching have more to do with teachers’ confidence thancompetence. It could be argued that the Music Manifesto’s emphasis oninstrumental teaching is in danger of perpetuating this. While seemingto offer children from all backgrounds an opportunity to participate inwhat c an be an expensive activity, there is the risk that thosechildren who are not inclined to learn an instrument are ‘made’ to takeone up by parents, that children who struggle with their instrumentfeel marginalised and compelled to abandon the instrument and theirenjoyment of music with it. The Southampton/Keele study showed that 45%of children surveyed from upper Primary and lower Secondary classes didnot learn an instrument and furthermore had no wish to. However, manyof these children enjoyed playing CDs, DJing, karaoke and singing alongto recordings at home, and it may therefore be desirable to incorporatethese activities into future plans (Hargreaves, Lamont, Marshall andTarrant 2002: Section 2). It is notable that instrumental lessons require specialist teaching,taking music education outside the remit of classroom teachers. Thesame could be argued for a credible supervised DJ-ing or karaokesession. These lessons potentially leave less time for classroom musicmak ing or for other subjects where music can be used incross-curricular situations. Yet the benefits of music in the classroomhas been established and it is important that, having become moreprominent within the curriculum, and with the support of teachers andheads, music does not become a more peripheral subject. Widespreadinstrumental proficiency would give a broader range of opportunitiesfor music-related activities, for example, the opportunity for allchildren to play in ensembles or sing with their peers providingmusical backing and to compose using the various instruments they andtheir peers are learning. The recent announcement by Ruth Kelly, Secretary of State forEducation, of an extended school day with breakfast clubs andafterschool activities may go some way to addressing the pressures onthe school timetable created by increasing the remit of school musiceducation. The future development of music education needs to be considered inthe context of music not merely as a c urriculum subject with a certainset of skills attached, but for its possibilities in other subjects andto fulfil a broader role in the school and community. Another area which needs further consideration is the broadereffects of music such as use as a therapy or as a tool to aidconcentration. Evidence suggests that research is still in its earlystages and causing some confusion over the potential of such uses ofmusic. It appears that there is no standard ‘good practice’ developedfor these applications. Given that many researchers are in conflictover what music can and cannot achieve, and that research largelyreports effects (or lack of them) with little exploration of whatspecific qualities in the music might be causing an effect, it is notsurprising that so little guidance seems to exist in this area.However, the number of studies reporting some kind of beneficial effectis too significant to ignore. As the research continues, it should beviable to put together infor mation on best practice and to implementthis in Primary – and other – schools with a greater consistency andpositive results. Another area of inconsistency is the links in schools with externalcontacts. One of the main reasons the Southampton/Keele studyestablished for children liking music lessons was â€Å"contact with ‘real’or professional musicians† (Hargreaves, Lamont, Marshall and Tarrant2002: Section 4). Many orchestras and other ensembles have outreachprojects involving musicians visiting schools. However, with many suchensembles London-based or in large cities, and professional musicianshaving many other commitments, there is a limit to how many of the UK’sapproximately 25000 Primary schools can be visited, with a notableeffect: â€Å"Smaller schools without these opportunities find this a significantproblem, whilst schools who benefit form contact with the world ofprofessional musicians report this as extremely beneficial ins upporting their in-school music teaching and activities† (ibid:Section 3). With inevitable limits on funding and time, the use of resources, evenwith the guidance of the National Curriculum and Schemes of Work, issubjective. However, the growing research into music, learning and itsbenefits for Primary school children supports a continued focus on thissubject which for so many decades has been neglected. To summarise, the recommendations for Primary music education in the future are: To continue training and support to increase classroom teachers’ confidence and competence in delivering music in a range of classroom situations To promote the use of music in cross-curricular situations with a mutual benefit for the two (or more) subjects taught in conjunction with each other To consider ongoing research into the broader benefits of music, both in mainstream education and SEN teaching, and to implement findings where applicable To continue to develop an inclusive Primary music strategy With the above points implemented, the growth of music as a forcewithin education with broad benefits for children and the widercommunity, will be set to continue. Barrett M (1996) Music Education and the Natural Learning Model in Spruce (Ed) Teaching Music (Routledge, London) pp63-73 Ben-Tovim A and Boyd D (1995) The Right Instrument for your Child (Gollancz, London) Campbell D (2002) The Mozart Effect for Children (Hodder and Stoughton, London) Carlton M (1987) Music in Education (Woburn Press, London) Colwell, C (1994) Therapeutic application of music in the wholelanguage kindergarten in Journal of Music Therapy 1994 vol31 pp238-247(American Music Therapy Association) Gillard, D. (2005) The Plowden Report in The Encyclopaedia of Informal Education ( Glover J and Ward S (1998) Teaching Music in the Primary School 2nd Edition (Cassell, London) Hargreaves D, Marshall N, Lamont A and Tarrant M (2002) Young people’smusic in and out of school: A study of pupils and teachers in primaryand secondary schools (Southampton/Keelestudy) Hume P (2004) Letter in Your Say, Teachers Magazine November 2004 Issue 35 (John Brown Citrus Publishing, London) Ivanov V and Geake J (2003) The Mozart Effect and Priamry SchoolChildren in Psychology of Music, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp405-413 (Society forEducation, Music and Psychology Research) Lesiuk T (2005) The effect of music listening on work performance inPsychology of Music, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp173-191 (Society for Education,Music and Psychology Research) Maynard M (2004) Letter in Your Say, Teachers Magazine November 2004 Issue 35 (John Brown Citrus Publishing, London) Mills J (1996) Musical Development in the Primary Years in Spruce (Ed) Teaching Music (Routledge, London) pp108-120 Packer Y (1996) Music with emotionally disturbed children in Spruce (Ed) Teaching Music (Routledge, London) pp132-143 Perry T M (1995) Music Lessons for Children with Special Needs (Jessica Kingsley, London) Rauscher F, Shaw G and Ky C (1993) Music and Spatial Task Performance in Nature 14 October 1993, p611 (Nature Publishing Group) Rauscher F (1999) Reply: Prelude or requiem for the Mozart effect? in Nature 26 August 1999 pp827-8 (Naturee Publishing Group) Rainbow B (1996) Onward from Butler: School music 1945-1985 in Spruce (Ed) Teaching Music (Routledge, London) pp9-20 Swanwick K (1996a) Music Education before the National Curriculum in Spruce (Ed) Teaching Music (Routledge, London) pp21-46 Swanwick K (1996b) Some observations on research and music education in Spruce (Ed) Teaching Music (Routledge, London) pp253-262 Wood D (1988) How Children Think and Learn (Blackwell, Oxford) Wragg E C (1993) Primary Teaching Skills (Routledge, London) National Curriculum for Music http:[email  protected]/* */=6004[email  protected]/* */=D_yis3e4CTrLs7ag596PwI[email  protected]/* */=3871 Becta: Pass the Teddy Music and the Deaf Research relating to the ‘Mozart Effect’: General (1) (2) Schemes of Work: PE/dance The Plowden Report

Monday, May 25, 2020

Social Action At The Lower East Side Tenement Museum

Case study 3: Social action at the Lower East Side Tenement Museum Ruth J. Abram, who wanted to create a museum centered upon an experience common to the majority of Americans, founded the Lower East Side Tenement Museum. Abram believed that the immigrant experience was something that diverse groups of people could relate to and unite together on, moving Americans â€Å"to participate in a national conversation with similarly situated, contemporary immigrants and other ‘outsiders’†(Abram 2005:21). As we can see, Abram has been dedicated from the start to civic engagement through community collaboration. Abram continually ensures that the museum has the resources and insight needed for community engagement. This is done in several ways. For instance, Abram and the Board of Trustees are committed to ensuring that there is funding for not only the various programs the museum engage in, but also for the staff’s needs. They are committed to having a diverse and inclusive team, comprised of individuals from multiple backgrounds. Furthermore, they have 32 full time staff positions and 30 part-time docents (Abram 2005). It is this kind of commitment that has contributed to successful and sustainable community collaboration. Staff members often speak more than one language and have experienced many of the same issues that past and present immigrants have faced such as welfare (Abram 2005). This brings in diverse experiences and stories into the museum space. As Abram has pointed out â€Å"TheShow MoreRelatedHow The Theory Of Civic Engagement Can Be Used For Create Successful And Sustainable Collaborations Between Museums And The1737 Words   |  7 Pagesconcrete examples of how the theory of civic engagement can be used to create successful and sustainable collaborations between museums and the communities they serve. Case Study 1: Developing Exhibit Programming at Carnegie Museum of Natural History The case study of the preparation of the arrival of the traveling exhibit Race: Are We so Different? by the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (Cole 2014) demonstrates how this approach of institutional capacity to create, sustain, and nourish relationshipsRead MoreHistory of Social Work18530 Words   |  75 PagesInstitute of Social Sciences Compiled by S.Rengasamy-History of Social Welfare / Social Work Contents History of Social Welfare/ Social Work ..........................................................................................................................3 The need to understand history of social work .............................................................................................................3 Framework to understand History of Social Welfare / Social Work .....Read MoreLangston Hughes Research Paper25309 Words   |  102 Pageson. You [will] see and hear and feel Jesus in your soul. At a revival, Langston watched other children go to the altar. He wanted to accompany them, but the Spirit did not enter his heart. He sat in the pew and waited. Auntie Reed knelt by his side, praying earnestly. Desperate to please her, Langston finally knelt at the altar and accepted Christ as his savior, but in his heart, he knew that he had not experienced salvation. That night in bed, Langston wept and admitted to God that he had