Sunday, June 28, 2020

Music - stimulus for learning across the primary curriculum - Free Essay Example

The teaching of music in Primary Schools is an area of education that has seen dramatic changes in the last few decades. From a situation where music teaching was almost non-existent in some schools, and where in others young children were frequently alienated from music by being banned from choirs or told they were ‘tone-deaf’, music is now strongly represented within the National Curriculum. Current thinking emphasises that there is no such thing as a completely unmusical child, and the curriculum has moved from an emphasis on performance – often for the relatively gifted only – and passive listening to encompass composition, performance and critical appraisal part of the musical education of every child. This study considers music within the broader context of Primary education, considering the benefits of integrating music into other areas of the curriculum, and looking at the implications for learning bearing in mind that music in itself has been linked with improved behaviour and concentration (Glover and Ward 1998: 14), and thus may be considered conducive to a desirable learning environment for all subjects, and, furthermore, to the social and mental well-being of Primary school children. The development of modern Primary music education can be traced back to the introduction of the National Curriculum in 1987, although music at the time was considered low priority, and was not included in the Curriculum until 1991. When the National Curriculum was introduced, many teachers questioned its viability: it moved away from the topic-based teaching which had embraced a number of subjects without specifying distinct areas such as history or music or language. It was felt that by focusing on the topic rather than specific academic subjects, lessons held more interest for children. However, a number of educationalists had criticised the topic-based approach because of its lack of objectives and limited focus on specific achievement, and the National Curriculum sought to address this. Today, best practice is considered to be somewhere between these two approaches: subjects are distinct from each other, but a focus on the links between different disciplines is encouraged, and it is in this environment that incorporating music into cross-curricular activities can be particularly beneficial. The past few decades have seen a significant change in the delivery of music education. The Plowden Report (1967) recognised the importance of ‘non-specialist’ teachers being able to deliver music teaching : â€Å"It is to the musical education of the teacher that attention must first be given†¦ Comparatively few primary schools†¦can, for s ome time to come, expect to have a music specialist as a full-time member of the staff and it is even doubtful whether a specialist responsible for most of the teaching is desirable. It is the musical education of the non-specialist which, in our view, is the key to the problem.†(Web link: Plowden Report para. 690) It was over two decades before this thinking began to be properly implemented. In the meantime, schools relied on music specialists –teachers who were trained musicians, almost always skilled pianists –and this led, at best, to a detachment of music-teaching from the rest of the curriculum, delivered by the class teacher, and, at worst (where a specialist was unavailable), marginalised or non-existent music education. The development of a National Curriculum for music which is intended to be delivered by classroom teachers without any music specialisation has allowed it to be linked with other work more easily.More significantly still, delivery by the class teacher who, through far more exposure to the class than the ‘once-a-week music teacher’,understands the dynamic of the class and the individual pupils’situations, enables that teacher to deliver music teaching in a way that engages the class more readily and meets their specific needs. In 1991, the National Curriculum for Music was developed quickly,with limited research and, in many areas of music teaching, no accepted‘good practice’ that could be incorporated into the plan. In 2000, anew National Curriculum for Music was introduced that could take account of what had been learnt through the 1990s. The announcement of the government’s Music Manifesto in July 2004 suggested a further commitment to music education, with the aim that every child should have the opportunity to learn a musical instrument. Although this could be considered a move away from classroom music teaching, with the requirement for peripatetic instrumental tea chers and the demands made on limited school time, the potential outcome is a future generation who consider a wide range of music to be part of their culture and experience, rather than something for their more gifted or more affluent classmates. In order to consider how music should be used across the Primary curriculum, some thought should be given to the ways in which children learn. There are various theories of learning: at the extremes are maturation, which suggests children should be left to learn through their own experiences, and behaviourism, which advocates learning through instruction from others. Many theories consider learning to be a combination of the two: Vygotsky’s theories reconcile the two approaches. Jean Piaget’s theories tend towards maturation and have been influential in education, though probably more so in the sciences than the arts. Through many years of observation, Piaget drew the conclusion that children establish a ‘framewor k’ within which they construct their vision of the world. As they experience something new, they try to explain it from the perspective of the framework (assimilation). Only if they cannot will their framework develop in some way(accommodation). Much of the experience Piaget considers should be self-generated and not instructional from teachers, parents or other authority figures. Piaget proposed four key stages of learning. For primary school teaching, the second and third stage are most relevant, covering the ages of around 2 to 7 (Pre-Operational) and around 7 to 11 (Concrete Operational) respectively. There is a lack of logic and a focus on the self in the Pre-operational stage, while in the Concrete operational stage, children are able to apply knowledge logically, manipulate information and understand the concept of others’ perceptions as well as their own. While Piaget’s theories are popular, many educators have reservations about them, particularly w ith regard to the specific age ranges linked to the stages. It is widely considered that such developments vary greatly in respect of age from child to child .Criticism of the Plowden Report has at times focused on its emphasis onPiagetian approaches (Gillard 2005). However, Piaget’s ideas are applied widely, including in music education, with its frequent focus on working together in ensembles (which helps develop understanding of others’ perspectives), or experimenting with the sounds that different classroom instruments can make (learning by experience). The behaviourist approach has lost favour in education: certainly in music, where it would be characterised by passive listening and instruction, it has been superceded by a more critical and analytical approach. Pavlov, famous for teaching dogs to salivate at the sound sofa bell, was a key figure in the development of behaviourist theory, and it has some place in musical education: for example, historical or cul tural context of a piece of music is best explained by the teacher before pupils explore its musical qualities. Vygotsky’s theories, which suggest children learn by a combination of experience and instruction are perhaps more relevant to primary music education. Vygotsky took into account the social and cultural environment, particularly the influence of parents. He proposed that children’s development arose as a result of interactions with others. Vygotsky’s theories provide a link to theories regarding the learning of expression through the spoken word. A number of academic shave researched the area of music as a language which might be learned in a similar way to speech. In Barrett (1996), various research into the learning of oral language is explored to construct a framework in which successful learning of music might take place. Key to it is immersion: just as language is practiced all around the child, so too should music be, with parents demonstrat ing good practice as well as teachers. This parallels the Suzuki method of instrumental learning,where the parent learns alongside the child and reinforces at home what has been taught. Barrett endorses a method which leans towards maturation – â€Å"the learner is encouraged to assume responsibility for his own learning,with frequent opportunities provided for the continuous practice of skills† (Barrett 1996:72), with â€Å"the teacher available to assist when help is requested† (ibid). Yet there is also an element of behaviourism: â€Å"The experience of explaining, or teaching an item to another is often instrumental in clarifying the issues within the mind of the learner† (ibid: 69). In Mills’ exploration of the development of musical skills in the primary years (Mills 1996), a New Zealand study is discussed which supports Barrett’s theories. Through extensive fieldwork, Roger Bucktonfound that Polynesian children in New Zealand sc hools sung with moreconsistent vocal accuracy than those from European families. Millsattributes this to the difference in culture: â€Å"[Polynesian] children sing with their families and in church from anearly age. Children of European ethnic background†¦often arrive atschool with little background in singing.† (Mills 1996: 119) As will be seen, these various schools of thought have implications forboth the study of music and of other subjects, and hence forcross-curricular activity too. To consider music’s use across the curriculum, we must first consider its place as a subject in its own right. The National Curriculum addresses the following core areas: Performing skills: controlling sound through singing and playing Composing skills: creating and developing musical ideas Appraising skills: responding to and reviewing music Listening and applying knowledge and understanding. The scope of the National Curriculum for music is broad. By the end ofKey Stage 1, pupils are expected to reach a standard where they arecapable of organising sound, of using symbols to represent music, ofperforming with an awareness of others and of responding to the mood ofmusic. Beyond the practical, they are also expected to learn aboutvarious music from history and around the world – this provides auseful opportunity for cross-curricular work – and to understand thefunctions of music such as for dance, again offering cross-curricularopportunities. This kind of background knowledge continues to form a core part of thecurriculum at Key Stage 2, with the practical element further expandedthrough ICT, with the statutory requirement to â€Å"capture, change andcombine sounds†. Technological developments and greater affordabilitymean this is an area that has been practical to include in thecurriculum only in recent years, and for many teachers unfamiliar with music technology, this creates an additional challenge. However, it isagain a practical area to apply cross-curricular teaching in. At Key Stage 2, pupils are expected to develop a sense of musicalexpression along with more advanced ensemble skills. They should alsobe able to evaluate and suggest improvements to pieces of music by thetime they leave Primary School. This corresponds to a time when pupilsare developing their own tastes, influenced by a range of externalfactors such as family (particularly older siblings), or artistsspecifically marketed at ‘tweens’. An awareness of such subcultures canhelp the Primary school teacher to relate elements of the music lessonto them to create a particular resonance with pupils with suchinterests. A 2002 study by a team of researchers from Southampton Roehampton and Keele Universities carried out as part of the QCA’s (Qualifications andCurriculum Authority) Curriculum Development Project in the Arts andMusic Monitori ng Programme produced some interesting findings(Hargreaves, Lamont, Marshall and Tarrant 2002). Many of the study’ssubjects were KS2 pupils. Across the study, which used interviews andquestionnaires to look at pupils’ and teachers’ attitudes to andengagement with school music teaching, children responded positively tothe performance aspect of the curriculum. Although many spent a gooddeal of time listening to music outside school (particularly popularmusic on the radio or on walkmans), little reference was made tolistening and appraising music in school music lessons, nor tocomposition. Given the government’s commitment to enabling every child to havethe opportunity to learn an instrument, it is perhaps surprising thatonly 17% of children thought this was something a school should offer,although the majority were learning or wanted to learn an instrument.While instrumental lessons may seem to offer limited scope forcross-curricular activities, and inde ed may take up additional teachingtime, their indirect effect on other subjects is positive as thelearning of an instrument helps develop a range of skills includingco-ordination, concentration and self-expression. The Southampton/Keele study noted that a number of teachersexpressed concern over time and financial resources available toimplement a music programme. The time constraints suggest thatcombination of subjects through cross-curricular activity may be anattractive solution if managed appropriately. The study also showed that the use of external music specialists inPrimary music teaching was widespread and, furthermore, help fromspecialists was seen as vital to the success of the music curriculum.The aim that music teaching should be deliverable by non-specialistteachers is still not met entirely: â€Å"Technical demands of the curriculum are mentioned by many teachers:even those with musical qualifications and expertise feel unable tocover the entire spectrum of the music curriculum.† (Hargreaves,Lamont, Marshall and Tarrant 2002: Section 3) This is not expanded on. Teachers responded positively to theschemes of work, particularly as a tool for less musically-experiencedteachers, but it is possible that the breadth of the music curriculumis a challenge for teachers to deliver. The government’s increasedfocus on learning an instrument is likely to maintain this situation.It will be interesting to see whether, in future years, the generationof teachers that has benefited from the National Curriculum for Musicas pupils and who have had more opportunity for learning an instrumentthan previous generations of Primary teachers find it easier to deliverclassroom music lessons. The response from schools in the Southampton/Keele survey wasoverwhelmingly positive and it appears that the National Curriculum hasbrought classroom music teaching out of the margins by demonstratingthe many benefits of musical activity, notably those beyond mu sicalskills such as the social aspects and positive impact on behaviour andconcentration. In addition to focusing purely on music for a period within thetimetable, many teachers practise combining music teaching with othersubjects. This has roots in pre-National Curriculum teaching, wherelearning was frequently cross-curricular and based on a topic. Incertain situations, it appears that music is highly relevant in theteaching of another subject. This section explores the opportunitiesavailable and shows how there may be significant benefits for learningin all subjects in a cross-curricular lesson. Glover and Ward warn that there is a danger of attempting tocombine subjects in a way that has little benefit. They particularlydraw attention to themed songs which have no musical relevance: â€Å"In a topic on ‘food’†¦young children might be encouraged to sing ‘FoodGlorious Food’†¦ the links with the topic are spurious†¦the song may be a poor musical choice for a class who find difficulty with pitching thedemanding interval leaps.† (Glover and Ward 1998: 153-4) Glover and Ward also draw attention to the practice of linkingcomposition too closely to topic work, so that children are invited tocreate the sound of, for example weather, producing sound effectsrather than an appropriately-structured and thought-out piece of music(Glover and Ward 1998: 154). Bearing these points in mind, how can music teaching be productively combined with other subject areas? History lends itself to an exploration of music from other times. Astudy of the Tudors might incorporate a look at Tudor instruments andmusic, which provides further opportunities to consider Tudor life.Many pieces are dances, and pupils might participate in a dance of theera. Pupils can find out more about the function of the music, aboutwho would have been able to afford the instruments and who would haveplayed them. This might link with study of lif e for the wealthycontrasted with the majority of the population or of leisure pursuitsof the time. This helps reinforce what has been learnt about life inTudor times, while consideration of the stylistic qualities of themusic benefits musical understanding. Geography provides the chance to consider world music within its socialand cultural context rather than in isolation. Glover and Ward advocateexploring various musical styles from the same geographical area: â€Å"A little research goes a long way towards getting things intoperspective. Children will be interested in the detail and thedifferences between different music within a culture.† (Glover and Ward1998: 160) Through exploration of the elements which go to make a particularmusical style, children can learn about musical devices such as dronesor call-and-response structures. Simultaneously, by understanding therole of a type of music within a particular culture, they gain abroader understanding of different s ocieties. Science lessons can provide a framework for the study of soundproduction. Through a focus on a range of instruments and othermaterials and their sonic properties (the production method of thesound, its qualities and pitch range, for example) causes pupils tofocus on the detail of sound. Composition activities linked toexperiments with sound production are enhanced: pupils consider thescope of their instruments in a broader range of musical parameters.Their scientific understanding of sound also benefits. Maths has particularly strong links with music, and various studieshave established a link between aptitude in maths and musical ability.Rhythm in music has a significant mathematical component: an obviousexample is the US note-naming system, where a crotchet is aquarter-note, a quaver an eighth-note and so on. Musical patterns offerthe opportunity to explore principles of symmetry, by playing a patternin its original form and in reverse. The inversion of a melody ca n belikened to reflection. A number of composers have incorporatedmathematical concepts into their music: many of these are rathercomplex for consideration at primary level, although the works ofXenakis may be useful for older Primary pupils. The construction of aparabola through a series of overlaid straight lines is visible in someof Xenakis’ scores, with lines performed as a string glissandi (slidesthrough pitch). Xenakis’ involvement with architecture, again using thescience of curves, may also be linked to lessons in this subject area.In addition to obvious connections with mathematics, Xenakis’ scoresare a useful example of how modern composers develop their own notationsystems and graphic scores, which may inspire children in compositionactivities. Literacy also has a close affiliation with music. The inflections inspeech are melodic and it has distinct rhythmic qualities. The settingof text to music draws on these connections. Explorations of language and words – for example, rhyming words or short poem – can be takenfurther by turning them into chants or songs. A recent trend which underlines the links between language andmusic is the frequency with which children write a ‘rap’ rather than apoem. This could be taken further with a look at rap music payingattention to the dialect, fulfilling the requirement of the NationalCurriculum for English that children understand about language variety.However, any rap music should be selected with care due to subjectmatter and vocabulary in many rap tracks being unsuitable for use inschool. Narratives in literacy can also be explored through music, but itis important that children understand the concept of music without aprogramme and can link musical devices to punctuation: a cadence is afull stop, a musical phrase correlates with a spoken phrase (Glover andWard 1998: 166). The National Curriculum for Physical Education promotes the explorationof music through dance, and schools have a long tradition of music andmovement lessons. Dance and music together are included in thegovernment’s Schemes of Work: â€Å"Unit 31†¦In this unit children focus on popular dance styles ofdifferent eras. They explore a range of dances, using step and gesturepatterns, body shapes, contact work, and contrasts in dynamic andrhythmic patterning. They learn more about both dance style and music.†(Weblink: Schemes of Work: PE/dance) This unit has links to history and possibly geography too, so is truly cross-curricular. Response to music through movement is pertinent throughout our culture(the inclination to tap a foot to the beat, for example), and in youngchildren a physical response to music is common. Ben-Tovim and Boydinclude this as a criterion in a ‘Musicality Test’ to be applied whenconsidering whether a child should learn a musical instrument(Ben-Tovim and Boyd 1995: 18). Possibly the most difficult sub ject to establish effectivecross-curricular links in is art. While music and art can be seen asclosely connected, they both function in a similar role in terms ofproviding an outlet for self-expression through organisation ofelements, whether visual or aural. The temptation to play a piece ofmusic as an ‘inspiration’ for painting may result in the childinventing a programme for the music which is then represented in apicture. One must question the benefits of this regarding the verylimited extent to which it might benefit musical understanding, andalso its unintentional promotion of the idea that music must beprogrammatic. Also, is the music a background element compromising thechild’s concentration on the art, or vice versa? Overall, there is a wide range of opportunity to combine music withother subjects to the benefit of both curriculum areas concerned. Thepractical applications discussed above also fulfil a balanced model ofinstructional teaching and self- discovery: for example, the teacherpresents a recording of music from another era or land, and providesbackground information, but the pupils are encouraged to explore itscharacteristics for themselves. This promotes a blend of thebehaviourist and maturation theories discussed earlier. The opportunities for mutual support between subjects throughcross-curricular teaching demonstrates the importance of classroomteachers having adequate support and training to incorporate music intoother lessons; it is even more relevant in cross-curricular teachingthan in music lessons. By ensuring this is the case, benefits may beseen across almost all curriculum subjects. In addition to combining music with other subjects in order to teach itdirectly, music has further applications in the curriculum. The connections between language and music have a further benefit thatcan be utilised across various subjects. Text set to music is moreeasily committed to memory, and the use of songs to lear n key facts iswidespread – for example, to learn numbers or the alphabet.Number-learning by song is effective, as one SEN teacher using singingin Maths comments: â€Å"Even if pupils don’t understand the concept of numbers, they can sing up to 10†, (Maynard 2004) Colwell’s research with Kindergarten children in the US (Colwell 1994)demonstrated that when children practised a reading text set to music,they read it with greater accuracy than a group who had practised thetext without its musical setting. However, although this researchsupports the findings of previous experiments, it used a sample of only27 subjects. Research undertaken by Dr Frances Rauscher, a former professional’cellist with a Ph.D. in Psychology, and her colleagues suggested alink between playing music to a group of subjects and a simultaneousincrease in their spatial-temporal reasoning abilities (Rauscher, Shawand Ky 1993). Since then, further research has been undertaken whichboth supports and questions these results. A further study in 1997 on preschool children showed a 34% increasein spatial-temporal reasoning tests among children who had receivedprivate piano and singing lessons compared to those who had not –including a group who had received private computer lessons. Theconclusion drawn by the researchers was that learning music was ofbenefit to learning potential in maths and science subjects, and moreso than computer skills. This research raises many questions. Firstly, it is widely thoughtthat the ideal age to begin learning an instrument is no younger than 7: â€Å"the second most common factor in musical failure was starting at thewrong time – too early†¦a six year old who goes on and on about wantingto play a musical instrument is experiencing the promptings of hisdeveloping instinct to make music, but he is not yet ready to do muchabout it.† (Ben-Tovim and Boyd 1995: 20) . It is therefore somewhat surp rising that very young children engagedwith their music lessons in a way that increased their more generalmental capabilities. This has clear implications for the government’sMusic Manifesto; could earlier instrumental learning have a greaterbenefit in other subjects? The second issue is the findings themselves: as the computerlessons had little impact on test results while the music lessons madea significant difference, it is clear that private teaching alone isnot the cause of the improvement; rather it is the learning of music.However, it does not necessarily follow that by simply listening tomusic, a child’s academic potential in mathematics or any other subjectis enhanced. Rauscher’s research has created a great deal of interest bothwithin more general media and among psychologists and other academics.It has, to some extent, been mythologised with the label â€Å"The MozartEffect†. Rauscher’s findings have been disputed by a number of aca demics.Heath and Bangerter (2004) argue that the original 1993 research, oncollege students, showed only a small effect which was not prolonged,and that a number of research projects have failed to replicate theresults. They also demonstrated a link between the level of attainmentin various states in the US and the amount of local newspaper coveragepromoting the Mozart Effect: the lower the attainment, the morecoverage. Heath and Bangerter attributed this to the recognition of aparticular problem and the possibility of a ‘quick fix’. In a number ofstates local government reflected media endorsement by subsidisingprojects to expose children to Mozart recordings, but it appears therestill needs to be more research in the area Rauscher herself has moved to clarify her research: â€Å"Our results on the effects of listening to Mozarts Sonata for TwoPianos in D Major K. 448 on spatial-temporal task performance, havegenerated much interest but several misconceptions†¦ the most common ofthese [is] that listening to Mozart enhances intelligence. We made nosuch claim. The effect is limited to spatial-temporal tasks involvingmental imagery and temporal ordering.† (Rauscher 1999) However, a number of studies have shown some evidence of a Mozarteffect in various different environments. Most relevant is Ivanov andGeake (2003) which found a Mozart Effect and a Bach Effect on Primaryschool children listening to music while undertaking a paper-foldingtask (again, this is demonstrating spatial-temporal competence ratherthan intelligence). This study also established that general musictraining was not a factor in the results – this suggests that playingmusic has a temporary effect on reasoning, and might not enhancelearning in other subjects subseq uently unless music is played on thatoccasion. The Mozart Effect continues to be debated by academics because ofthe conflicting research findings. However, it is notable that limitedresearch has been done on the elements of music which might contributeto the effect, although reference to an unspecified study by Dr WilliamThompson (Weblink: Research relating to the ‘Mozart Effect’ (2)) notesthat the effect is evident when lively classical music, includingMozart and Schubert, is played, but not with slower music by Albinoni. Many teachers report using background music in a variety of situations with positive results: â€Å"For many years I have used music during lessons. It helps youngchildren relax in handwriting lessons, and helps their concentrationduring imaginative writing sessions.† (Hume 2004) It appears that there is certainly some evidence supporting playinglively classical music in a variety of class situations to boostpupils’ performan ce, and a number of teachers are using backgroundmusic in class and feel it to be beneficial. However, much research isstill needed in this area. Music teaching has a variety of uses within the curriculum for pupilswith special educational needs (SEN). The term SEN is used to refer topupils with special needs arising from a wide range of situations andconditions such as physical disability, emotional and behaviouralproblems, autism, school phobia, a background of abuse or stress ordyslexia. Many of these children may be academically gifted, others mayfind very basic concepts challenging. Music in SEN, as a result,fulfils a range of functions. For all SEN music lessons, there is the potential to cover areasincluded in the National Curriculum: listening and appraising,composing and performing. The nature of SEN teaching means that thesemay have to be adapted according to the needs of pupils. Cross-curricular activity can be useful tool: for example, whilepupils with concentra tion problems may struggle to sit and listen tomusic, they may be more receptive if asked to draw a picture respondingto music that is playing while they do so, although there can be adifficulty with children focusing on their art and barely noticing themusic. Perry (1995: 56) suggests using a 5 minute excerpt introducedwith a story – thus using literacy – to create an initial engagementbefore moving on to children drawing. Music may also be used as a form of therapy. For younger children,activities undertaken while standing in a circle are of particularbenefit in helping child a child with attention difficulties to engage.An activity might involve passing a teddy around a circle while musicplays until it stops, at which point the child holding the teddy has achance to play briefly on an instrument. The teddy helps those childrenwho might be resistant to the activity to accept it (Weblinks: Becta). For autistic children, music can contribute to establishing arout ine. With songs, for example, for lunchtime, for playtime and forgoing-home time, where the same piece of music is used consistently forthe same activity, singing can help maintain the sense of stability androutine which is particularly important for those with autism (Maynard2004). While musical activities can benefit children with specialeducational needs, care must also be taken not to cause a detrimentaleffect. Packer (1996: 136) identifies that certain methods of musicmaking can create stress for a child who is particularly sensitive toit, quoting Nordoff and Robbins, pioneers in music therapy. Sheexpresses concern, however, that fear of causing harm can eliminate anychance of benefit if it results in less music being used in SENteaching. The role of music in SEN teaching effectively falls into twodifferent categories: music to try and lessen the SEN – for example,for children with behavioural problems – and music as a means offulfilling a number of needs fo r children whose underlying condition –say, visual impairment – will not be improved by the musical activities. For children who struggle to engage with mainstream activitiesbecause of a condition such as visual impairment or dyslexia, music hasan important role because many musical activities place them on anequal footing with pupils without special educational needs. This canenhance confidence and fulfil social needs. It is important to include deaf children in musical activities.Those with no hearing can sense vibrations and pulses, and theopportunity to play an instrument can have a significant effect on ahearing-impaired or profoundly deaf child. The organisation Music andthe Deaf, founded by Paul Whittaker, a gifted organist who isprofoundly deaf, has undertaken a number of projects to promote musicin the classroom for deaf children (Weblink: Music and the Deaf). Gifted children also fall within the category of SEN teaching, andcan prove a particular cha llenge in classroom music teaching. It is notunusual to find a Primary School pupil who has achieved AssociatedBoard Grade 5 or 6 on an instrument and for the non-specialist musicteacher this raises the issue of their own expertise being scrutinised.In practice, many of the activities in the QCA’s schemes of work adaptwell to cater for children of a wide variety of standards: for example,a composition or improvisation exercise allows each child to perform atthe level of their choosing. With many Local Education Authoritiesrunning Saturday music schools and similar activities, the provisionfor the musically-able pupil is often more than adequate. In conclusion, it is clear that music teaching in Primary schools has awide range of potential applications, including learning specificmusical skills, the reinforcement and exploration of concepts in othersubject areas, the enhancement of social aspects of school and apositive impact on behaviour and concentration. However, his torical neglect of classroom music teaching has resulted inthe ideal situation, of all Primary School teachers confident andcompetent in the delivery of classroom music lessons, still lacking inmany schools. This creates a situation where music is being taught veryinclusively, with the aim of engaging all pupils and the belief thatall pupils are capable of musical expression, by teachers with littleor no experience of being included themselves. The effect on a child’sconfidence of being told they are ‘no good’ at music, or of not beingallowed to join in with their peers in singing or playing activities,can have a lasting effect and it might be that issues with Primaryschool music teaching have more to do with teachers’ confidence thancompetence. It could be argued that the Music Manifesto’s emphasis oninstrumental teaching is in danger of perpetuating this. While seemingto offer children from all backgrounds an opportunity to participate inwhat c an be an expensive activity, there is the risk that thosechildren who are not inclined to learn an instrument are ‘made’ to takeone up by parents, that children who struggle with their instrumentfeel marginalised and compelled to abandon the instrument and theirenjoyment of music with it. The Southampton/Keele study showed that 45%of children surveyed from upper Primary and lower Secondary classes didnot learn an instrument and furthermore had no wish to. However, manyof these children enjoyed playing CDs, DJing, karaoke and singing alongto recordings at home, and it may therefore be desirable to incorporatethese activities into future plans (Hargreaves, Lamont, Marshall andTarrant 2002: Section 2). It is notable that instrumental lessons require specialist teaching,taking music education outside the remit of classroom teachers. Thesame could be argued for a credible supervised DJ-ing or karaokesession. These lessons potentially leave less time for classroom musicmak ing or for other subjects where music can be used incross-curricular situations. Yet the benefits of music in the classroomhas been established and it is important that, having become moreprominent within the curriculum, and with the support of teachers andheads, music does not become a more peripheral subject. Widespreadinstrumental proficiency would give a broader range of opportunitiesfor music-related activities, for example, the opportunity for allchildren to play in ensembles or sing with their peers providingmusical backing and to compose using the various instruments they andtheir peers are learning. The recent announcement by Ruth Kelly, Secretary of State forEducation, of an extended school day with breakfast clubs andafterschool activities may go some way to addressing the pressures onthe school timetable created by increasing the remit of school musiceducation. The future development of music education needs to be considered inthe context of music not merely as a c urriculum subject with a certainset of skills attached, but for its possibilities in other subjects andto fulfil a broader role in the school and community. Another area which needs further consideration is the broadereffects of music such as use as a therapy or as a tool to aidconcentration. Evidence suggests that research is still in its earlystages and causing some confusion over the potential of such uses ofmusic. It appears that there is no standard ‘good practice’ developedfor these applications. Given that many researchers are in conflictover what music can and cannot achieve, and that research largelyreports effects (or lack of them) with little exploration of whatspecific qualities in the music might be causing an effect, it is notsurprising that so little guidance seems to exist in this area.However, the number of studies reporting some kind of beneficial effectis too significant to ignore. As the research continues, it should beviable to put together infor mation on best practice and to implementthis in Primary – and other – schools with a greater consistency andpositive results. Another area of inconsistency is the links in schools with externalcontacts. One of the main reasons the Southampton/Keele studyestablished for children liking music lessons was â€Å"contact with ‘real’or professional musicians† (Hargreaves, Lamont, Marshall and Tarrant2002: Section 4). Many orchestras and other ensembles have outreachprojects involving musicians visiting schools. However, with many suchensembles London-based or in large cities, and professional musicianshaving many other commitments, there is a limit to how many of the UK’sapproximately 25000 Primary schools can be visited, with a notableeffect: â€Å"Smaller schools without these opportunities find this a significantproblem, whilst schools who benefit form contact with the world ofprofessional musicians report this as extremely beneficial ins upporting their in-school music teaching and activities† (ibid:Section 3). With inevitable limits on funding and time, the use of resources, evenwith the guidance of the National Curriculum and Schemes of Work, issubjective. However, the growing research into music, learning and itsbenefits for Primary school children supports a continued focus on thissubject which for so many decades has been neglected. To summarise, the recommendations for Primary music education in the future are: To continue training and support to increase classroom teachers’ confidence and competence in delivering music in a range of classroom situations To promote the use of music in cross-curricular situations with a mutual benefit for the two (or more) subjects taught in conjunction with each other To consider ongoing research into the broader benefits of music, both in mainstream education and SEN teaching, and to implement findings where applicable To continue to develop an inclusive Primary music strategy With the above points implemented, the growth of music as a forcewithin education with broad benefits for children and the widercommunity, will be set to continue. Barrett M (1996) Music Education and the Natural Learning Model in Spruce (Ed) Teaching Music (Routledge, London) pp63-73 Ben-Tovim A and Boyd D (1995) The Right Instrument for your Child (Gollancz, London) Campbell D (2002) The Mozart Effect for Children (Hodder and Stoughton, London) Carlton M (1987) Music in Education (Woburn Press, London) Colwell, C (1994) Therapeutic application of music in the wholelanguage kindergarten in Journal of Music Therapy 1994 vol31 pp238-247(American Music Therapy Association) Gillard, D. (2005) The Plowden Report in The Encyclopaedia of Informal Education ( Glover J and Ward S (1998) Teaching Music in the Primary School 2nd Edition (Cassell, London) Hargreaves D, Marshall N, Lamont A and Tarrant M (2002) Young people’smusic in and out of school: A study of pupils and teachers in primaryand secondary schools (Southampton/Keelestudy) Hume P (2004) Letter in Your Say, Teachers Magazine November 2004 Issue 35 (John Brown Citrus Publishing, London) Ivanov V and Geake J (2003) The Mozart Effect and Priamry SchoolChildren in Psychology of Music, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp405-413 (Society forEducation, Music and Psychology Research) Lesiuk T (2005) The effect of music listening on work performance inPsychology of Music, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp173-191 (Society for Education,Music and Psychology Research) Maynard M (2004) Letter in Your Say, Teachers Magazine November 2004 Issue 35 (John Brown Citrus Publishing, London) Mills J (1996) Musical Development in the Primary Years in Spruce (Ed) Teaching Music (Routledge, London) pp108-120 Packer Y (1996) Music with emotionally disturbed children in Spruce (Ed) Teaching Music (Routledge, London) pp132-143 Perry T M (1995) Music Lessons for Children with Special Needs (Jessica Kingsley, London) Rauscher F, Shaw G and Ky C (1993) Music and Spatial Task Performance in Nature 14 October 1993, p611 (Nature Publishing Group) Rauscher F (1999) Reply: Prelude or requiem for the Mozart effect? in Nature 26 August 1999 pp827-8 (Naturee Publishing Group) Rainbow B (1996) Onward from Butler: School music 1945-1985 in Spruce (Ed) Teaching Music (Routledge, London) pp9-20 Swanwick K (1996a) Music Education before the National Curriculum in Spruce (Ed) Teaching Music (Routledge, London) pp21-46 Swanwick K (1996b) Some observations on research and music education in Spruce (Ed) Teaching Music (Routledge, London) pp253-262 Wood D (1988) How Children Think and Learn (Blackwell, Oxford) Wragg E C (1993) Primary Teaching Skills (Routledge, London) National Curriculum for Music http:[email  protected]/* */=6004[email  protected]/* */=D_yis3e4CTrLs7ag596PwI[email  protected]/* */=3871 Becta: Pass the Teddy Music and the Deaf Research relating to the ‘Mozart Effect’: General (1) (2) Schemes of Work: PE/dance The Plowden Report

Monday, May 25, 2020

Social Action At The Lower East Side Tenement Museum

Case study 3: Social action at the Lower East Side Tenement Museum Ruth J. Abram, who wanted to create a museum centered upon an experience common to the majority of Americans, founded the Lower East Side Tenement Museum. Abram believed that the immigrant experience was something that diverse groups of people could relate to and unite together on, moving Americans â€Å"to participate in a national conversation with similarly situated, contemporary immigrants and other ‘outsiders’†(Abram 2005:21). As we can see, Abram has been dedicated from the start to civic engagement through community collaboration. Abram continually ensures that the museum has the resources and insight needed for community engagement. This is done in several ways. For instance, Abram and the Board of Trustees are committed to ensuring that there is funding for not only the various programs the museum engage in, but also for the staff’s needs. They are committed to having a diverse and inclusive team, comprised of individuals from multiple backgrounds. Furthermore, they have 32 full time staff positions and 30 part-time docents (Abram 2005). It is this kind of commitment that has contributed to successful and sustainable community collaboration. Staff members often speak more than one language and have experienced many of the same issues that past and present immigrants have faced such as welfare (Abram 2005). This brings in diverse experiences and stories into the museum space. As Abram has pointed out â€Å"TheShow MoreRelatedHow The Theory Of Civic Engagement Can Be Used For Create Successful And Sustainable Collaborations Between Museums And The1737 Words   |  7 Pagesconcrete examples of how the theory of civic engagement can be used to create successful and sustainable collaborations between museums and the communities they serve. Case Study 1: Developing Exhibit Programming at Carnegie Museum of Natural History The case study of the preparation of the arrival of the traveling exhibit Race: Are We so Different? by the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (Cole 2014) demonstrates how this approach of institutional capacity to create, sustain, and nourish relationshipsRead MoreHistory of Social Work18530 Words   |  75 PagesInstitute of Social Sciences Compiled by S.Rengasamy-History of Social Welfare / Social Work Contents History of Social Welfare/ Social Work ..........................................................................................................................3 The need to understand history of social work .............................................................................................................3 Framework to understand History of Social Welfare / Social Work .....Read MoreLangston Hughes Research Paper25309 Words   |  102 Pageson. You [will] see and hear and feel Jesus in your soul. At a revival, Langston watched other children go to the altar. He wanted to accompany them, but the Spirit did not enter his heart. He sat in the pew and waited. Auntie Reed knelt by his side, praying earnestly. Desperate to please her, Langston finally knelt at the altar and accepted Christ as his savior, but in his heart, he knew that he had not experienced salvation. That night in bed, Langston wept and admitted to God that he had

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Critical Thinking and Decision Making Essay - 1083 Words

Human beings have been preoccupied with thought and the concept of thought for centuries as is evidenced by the many philosophical and religious writings we find dating from ancient times. After all, we as human beings hold ourselves to be the masters of intelligence in the natural world since no other specie seems to exhibit the capability of thought and intelligence as demonstrated by human beings, the very term homo sapiens infers the ability to think. Critical thinking is asking the right questions about the information we are presented with on any given situation. Or as Brown and Keeley put it, it is asking critical questions. (Pg. 2) To put it more specifically, asking critical questions†¦show more content†¦Of course it would be unfair to say that this was just a chance occurrence. Fleming was already involved in searching for cures and medicines as a research scientist. We could say he was already asking questions. This was not a mere mistake, he was able to observe, evaluate, and conclude that Penicillin would work as it does. If most of us were to find something growing mold in our refrigerator, it would be very doubtful that we would excitedly research the growing culture. The context of this finding is very important. Fleming was already in a search mode, and he was able to observe something that happened in the context and environment of a research laboratory. In their book, Critical Thinking: Asking the Right Questions, the authors Browne and Keeley, primarily discuss the process of evaluating information, deciphering the meaning of statements, and realizing that as people communicate there may be hidden inadequacies that distort or impede the meaning or context of what is being communicated to us (Pg.7). For the purposes of this class their reasoning and explanation is appropriate and more than sufficient. We could simply illustrate this point by just adding an additional line of questioning to our repertoire of critical questions: what happened, and what is that? Decision making Decision making, is the abilityShow MoreRelatedCritical Thinking For Decision Making755 Words   |  4 Pagesis to discuss my critical thinking for decision-making and problem-solving as a professional in healthcare, reflect on the three most important elements of personal and professional etiquette, identify my communication strengths and weaknesses, identify strategies to stay on-task and on-time, and discuss my professional goals. Critical Thinking for Decision-Making and Problem Solving As a professional in the healthcare environment, I use my critical thinking for decision-making and problem solvingRead MoreCritical Thinking And Decision Making1198 Words   |  5 PagesCritical thinking is the process of actively conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information gathered from the observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication. Critical thinking is a guide to belief and action (Scriven Paul 1987). In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairnessRead MoreCritical Thinking And Decision Making1240 Words   |  5 PagesCritical Thinking and Decision Making By Pat Scruggs | Submitted On October 31, 2010 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook Share this article on Twitter 1 Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon Share this article on Delicious Share this article on Digg Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest What is critical thinking? There s a phrase that conjures up all manner of opinionsRead MoreDecision Making : Critical Thinking1982 Words   |  8 Pagespossible. But like Gary Collins said â€Å"We can try to avoid making choices by doing nothing, but even that is a decision. Therefore, decision making is in us relentlessly whether we want it or not. No single definition of critical thinking is widely accepted. Critical thinking is the process in which one challenges their emotive, self-centered way of thinking. It causes one to test their own assumptions and question their reasoning. Critical thinking is the process in which one mentally explores deeperRead MoreCritical Thinking in Decision Making Essay848 Words   |  4 PagesCritical Thinking in Decision Making Debra Rodriguez MGT 350 August 6, 2012 Karen Allen Critical thinking is a mode of thinking where one improves his or her quality by applying intellectual skills to elements of decisions to make solid decisions to develop intellectual traits. It is important to enhance ones critical thinking skills to improve decision-making capabilties in life and create new opportunities. Critical thinking is the ability of evaluating and assessing thoughts with the aimRead More Critical Thinking and Decision Making Essay588 Words   |  3 PagesCritical Thinking and Decision Making In the corporate environment critical decisions must be made, sometimes quickly, whether because of changes in market conditions, corporate profits, or corporate performances. The decision-making process is vital to good management in today’s work environment. This paper will examine the relationship between critical thinking and the decision making process, explain what the textbook authors believe, and relate how both apply to today’s workplace. CriticalRead MoreEssay on Critical Thinking and Decision Making582 Words   |  3 Pages The process of critical thinking requires you to ask more questions of both others and of yourself before a decision or determination is made. In order to successfully evaluate data in a critical manner, you must have a system in place to assess information as it is presented. In any situation whether you are having a conversation, observing others, or material you have read, you must be ready to probe deeper and ask the right question at the right time. Browne, Keely, McCall and Kaplan, refersRead MoreEssay on Critical Thinking and Decision-Making1892 Words   |  8 PagesCritical Thinking and Decision-Making The purpose of this paper is to explain critical thinking and decision-making by different examples, models, and show how it is used in everyday life. Everyone uses critical thinking and decision-making all the time, most of the time without recognition and involuntary and it starts from the time you wake up in the morning till you go to bed. There are three components for every decision made and they are: 1.Criteria- the standards by which decision makersRead MoreThe Relationship Between Critical Thinking and Decision Making665 Words   |  3 PagesCritical thinking and decision-making are related in more ways than people think. This paper will define critical thinking and decision-making according to the book Whatever It Takes. It will also present a personal definition of critical thinking and decision-making from the author of this paper. The relationship between the two will be explained as well as the benefits of being a critical thinker. The author of this paper will also sh ow how critical thinking is present in his organization and howRead MoreCritical Thinking and Decision Making Essay example733 Words   |  3 PagesCritical Thinking 1 CRITICAL THINKING AND DECISION MAKING Critical Thinking and Decision-Making Paper Critical Thinking 2 Abstract Critical thinking and decision-making are related in more ways than people think. This paper will define critical thinking and decision-making according to the book Whatever It Takes. It will also present a personal definition of critical thinking and decision-making from the author of this paper. The relationship between the two will be explained as

Friday, May 15, 2020

Essay on The Analysis of the Final Solution in Europe

The Analysis of the Final Solution in Europe The Final Solution was a major plan to get rid of all Jews in Europe, which had started long before Extermination camps were set up, and was a systematic process to slowly declass and isolate the Jews as citizens and work on disposing of what was believed to be a weak race. Prior to Nazi anti-Semitism, the Jews were discriminated against from the medieval era, as Jews were seen as those responsible for the death of Jesus, but never before had a countries’ official policy consisted of genocide. Before the Final Solution to the Jewish Question could be determined, the Nazis experimented with many anti-Semitic policies.†¦show more content†¦In November 1938, as reprisals to the assassination of a German diplomat in Paris by a young Jew, the Nazis organised a wave of destruction on Jewish businesses and synagogues. 20 000 Jews were arrested and sent to camps, and 91 were murdered. This is known as the Night of Broken Glass, or Kristallnacht and further continued into declassifying Jews, and treating them in a more violent way, which would bring about the mass genoicide that the Nazis hoped for, although the Nazis were still undecided of how to deal with their problem, and as Germany conquered more land during the Second World War, that in turn, led to ownership of more Jews to be dealt with. In July 1940, a method they attempted was to deport all German and West European Jews to the African island of Madagascar. However, this plan had to beShow MoreRelatedLeadership Roles And Its Impact On Organizations Essay1705 Words   |  7 Pagesa leader. In addition, despite the nature of business in any organization, there must be a leader who coordinates and directs its interactions. This study focuses on the outcomes of leadership roles and its impact on organizations in Nigeria and Europe. In theory, there is a relationship between leadership in organizations and the level of economic growth in a country. This study will look at ways of improving on leadership performance in order to have a positive and healthy impact on organizationsRead MoreHuman Trafficking Solutions902 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿ Human Trafficking: Solutions Samatha Shepperd EN3220 Written Analysis Dr. Lovett August 28th, 2014 Human Trafficking: Solutions Human Trafficking is a transnational problem. All countries are affected by human trafficking; some countries are where the humans are taken from while other countries are where the humans are taken to for forced labor or sex. No one has a full proof solution to human trafficking but many countries have parts of solutions to the problem. Germany and the NetherlandsRead MoreThe Train Car As A Symbol Of The Extermination1337 Words   |  6 Pagesfeeling, and existence came to represent the physical transportation of European Jews to their deaths. This analysis will focus in four ways in which the train car became the symbol of European extermination during this Nazi regime. First, this will be done through examining the role of the railway as the physical transporter of the Jews to the extermination camps during the Final Solution. Secondly, I will examine how survivors remember the train cars as they became associated with unfortunate truthRead MoreInternational Business Management Essay620 Words   |  3 Pageswere Mr. Shuhei, how would you categorize your problems and solutions? What was as short-term and what was a long-term problem? Standing as Mr. shuhei’s point of view, I would like to concentrate on the overall manufacture framework, which was how Toyota was running its oversea business in the historical strategy chosen and market response in the following fiscal year. Toyota has two main largest oversea markets, North America and Europe. At first, I want to focus on comparing the two main overseaRead More‘the Final Solution Evolved Because of the Chaotic Nature of the Nazi Regime in the Years 1939-42.’ How Far Do You Agree with This Opinion?1465 Words   |  6 Pages‘The Final Solution evolved because of the chaotic nature of the Nazi regime in the years 1939-42.’ How far do you agree with this opinion? The Final Solution is the most controversial topic of German History as its origination is not clean cut, whilst it would be simple to place emphasis on Hitler and his World View for the destruction of all Jewry there are other factors such as WW2 which must be taken into consideration in analysis of the Final Solution. Other factors include the polarised viewRead MoreThe Crisis Of The Euro Crisis1184 Words   |  5 PagesThe Euro Crisis is the failure of the Euro, the currency that binds all 19 countries of the Eurozone together. The tightly knit nature of this economy means that if even one country’s economy fails, Europe as a whole goes with them. This currency, which was originally created to stimulate economic growth, has become the cause of much accumulated debt. Situation: Currently the PIIGS (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece, and Spain), whose GDP ratios are all well over 100%, are in danger of sinkingRead More The Origins of the Holocaust Essay1547 Words   |  7 Pagesinfluence of modern â€Å"scientific† racism or eugenics. These interpretations are illustrated in the works of John Weiss, Ian Kershaw, and Henry Friedlander. Niewyk uses Weiss to identify the interpretation of ancient anti-Semitism located throughout Europe as the origin of the Holocaust. He uses Ian Kershaw’s argument that Adolf Hitler’s unique leadership was the ultimate catalyst for the Holocaust and employs Henry Friedlander’s biological racist ideology to illustrate the main interpretations surroundingRead MoreAnalysis of Conspiracy1285 Words   |  6 PagesSource Analysis: Conspiracy Conspiracy is a 2001 film directed by Frank Pierson and written by Loring Mandel, the film dramatizes the events of the Wannsee Conference of 1942, and the meeting was led by Heydrick. During the Wannsee Conference the senior officials of the Nazi regime had meeting to discuss how to remove the Jewish population from the German sphere of influence (Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Czechoslovakia and France). The director interestingly brings an aspect of Nazi psychology; PiersonRead MoreEssay about Jetblue Ipo Case1009 Words   |  5 PagesBusiness Finance Policy: FINA 380-01 Dr. William Brent February 3rd 2009 JetBlue Airways: IPO Valuation Table of Content I. Statement of Problem II. Alternative Solutions III. Analysis of the Alternatives IV. Final Recommendation V. Appendix I. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM David Neeleman, CEO of JetBlue Airways and his management team have realized that JetBlue is still making profit despite the many challenges facing the airline industry after the SeptemberRead MoreA Brief Look at Otis Elevators806 Words   |  3 Pagesin 2003. †¢ Headquarter in Farmington, Connecticut. Engineering plants in 6 other countries. †¢ Had 60,000 employees, 90% of them worked outside US. †¢ Operations organized into 7 regions: North and South America, South Europe, Middle East, North and East Europe, Uk and Central Europe, N Asia, S Asia, Japan. †¢ Driver-Reengineer business process, CRM, SCM, reduce cycle time, centralize services, get recognized as a service company rather than manufacturing. Initiative Objective/Benefits Objectives Benefits

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Primary Source Analysis The Act of Supremacy 1534

Primary Source Analysis: The Act of Supremacy 1534 The primary source I chose to research is The Act of Supremacy (1534). This was an act passed by the English Parliament establishing the English monarch, which at the time was Henry Tudor VIII, as the head of state and religious head of the Church of England. Although there is always some glamorization in the writing and depiction of historically based movies, I enjoyed both â€Å"The Other Boleyn Girl† and the cable series â€Å"The Tudors†. I found Henry VIII quite interesting, twisting both law and religion to suit his particular wants. The ideas for The Act of Supremacy document, I assume, would have been from King Henry VIII but was written by Lord Thomas Cromwell to be made into†¦show more content†¦Pope Clement VII refused this request on both ideology and out of fear. â€Å"Catherine of Aragon was the aunt of the Emperor Charles V of Spain (the Holy Roman Emperor) whose army surrounded Rome.† ( formation) Lord Cromwell never fully believed in the king’s desire for reformation or separation from the Papacy, however, he knew that the king fully desired this annulment. Lord Cromwell used that information to his benefit, knowing that the Pope’s refusal to grant the annulment would turn the king against the Roman Catholic Church. The Act of Supremacy not only made Henry VIII both head of state and church but it broke ties between England and the Papacy. The Act of Supremacy was a more political dispute than theological. Prior to England’s break from the Papacy, the Roman Catholic Church had the power to create laws imposed on England and governed by Canon Law. Canon Law was â€Å"†¦ecclesiastical law, esp. (in the Roman Catholic Church) that laid down by papal pronouncements.† ( Also, the Catholic church was able to collect revenue from their parishioners which were then sent to the Papacy. With the creation of this Act, England revoked the Papacy’s power and declared the king head of both England and it’s church. â€Å"Albeit the kings Majesty justly and rightfully is and ought to be the supremeShow MoreRelatedRacism and Ethnic Discrimination44667 Words   |  179 Pagespeople of their human rights—which are by definition universal, inherent, and everlasting. In the case of Indigenous Peoples and Afro-descendent groups in Nicaragua, it also results in the denial of their collective rights. Discrimination is the act through which one social group is deprived of the rights that are enjoyed by other groups.2 Ethnic and racial discrimination have been classified as legal, interpersonal, institutional, structural, and oral.3 Interview, Helen Gà ³mez, October 2006

Role Models - 1031 Words

By definition, a role model is one whose behavior, example, or success is emulated by others. Today, athletes and other sport stars are looked up to by people of all ages. Everyone loves them, they appear on television with the entire world watching. Athletes are known for their wealth, talent, and fame. We admire them as our leaders with their determination and confidence. No wonder we always make heroes out of favorite athletes. They are seen as role models because they can do what we cannot. Today, athletes are known for wealth, privilege, and fame, because of their talent, salary, and positions as leaders, it’s inevitable that we admire them. We can learn quite a lot from role models like determination and confidence because we†¦show more content†¦His life inspired many following and he will be one of the great gods of music for all time. Another one of the most influential role models are fathers. My dad is a lawyer and a sports agents whose first priority was always his children. My dad always tried to make my life the best, letting me go to sports events and fancy restaurants at a young age. He knew all the professional athletes and gave me many childhood memories of meeting many of my other role models. He’s always been there for me when I needed advice and supports all my activities. He made sure that he attended every sporting event, concert, or school activity I ever had. My father is one of the greatest influences on my life and is go ing to be the person I most resemble for the rest of my life. His hard work and social skills make up a lot of what I am today. To move from India, not knowing anyone, and to be the social person he is today makes me respect him even more. All of the previously mentioned role models in my life have played such a strong impact on me and many other American children. There are many other significannot role models and great people that have played an important role in my life and there will probably be more to come. I am the person I am today because of Michael Jordan, John Lennon and my father. Hopefully these people will continue to inspire many people in theShow MoreRelatedRole Of A Good Role Model1285 Words   |  6 PagesA good role model is the one who can be respected, admired, expected in some ways by employees within organization. Role modeling is influenced the workplace in terms of communication, performance and organizational behavior. A good role model able to gain credi bility and team cohesion, he also can expect the subordinates to work with you closely. To ensure myself acted as a positive role model for my subordinates and others in workplace, I will follow the below guidelines: Follow the CompanyRead MorePositive Role Model in the Children and Young Peoples Workforce835 Words   |  4 PagesHomework – 24/05/11 Write about what is a positive role model in children and young peoples work force and all about you and your job role. 400 words 100 words evaluation Include your qualities skills workplace policies and procedures. Write About What Is A Positive Role Model In Children And Young Peoples Workforce And All About You And Your Job Role. Role Models And Why They Should Be Positive. One way in which children learn is by watching and copying others. â€Å"ChildrenRead MoreDaddys Can be a Little Girls Role Model, Too840 Words   |  3 PagesAlmost every child has a role model, a person whose behavior in a particular role is imitated by others, in his or her life. Athletes, celebrities, social figures and entertainers all have the ability to be role models. However, my role model is my dad. Ever since I was a little girl, I have looked up to my father trying to aspire to be more alike him because he was, and still is, a positive role model in my life; He and I have a tight daddy daughter relationship that never developed between my motherRead MoreCelebrities Role Models954 Words   |  4 Pagesas doing drugs. There are also celebrities changing themselves not with the intent to change others. At the end, celebrities can be considered positive and negative role models. The difference is that the celebrities who do bad acts will be focused on more than the celebrities who do good. Celebrities should not be considered role m odels because of how some are getting in trouble with the law, how some celebrities can cause depression, and because the world focuses on the negative side rather thanRead MoreChildhood, Children and Role Models1837 Words   |  8 PagesIt is a precious time in which children should live free from fear, safe from violence and protected from abuse and exploitation.’ ‘A role model is a person whose serves as an example by influencing others. For many children, the most important role models are their parents and caregivers’ (AACAP,2011). Children look up to many different ‘role models’ and the models they choose may indicate how they react to schooling, relationships or when making difficult decisions. Children may often try to imitateRead MoreThe Role Of Gender Challenging Role Models1710 Words   |  7 PagesThe use of gender challenging role models in the classroom is a method I am going to use during my final professional practice and during my year as a Newly Qualified Teacher (NQT). I am going to use these demonstrate to both girls and boys that the media depiction of success is not accurate and that success can be measured in various ways. Role models such as Marie Curie, Dian Fossey and Mary Anning are good historical figures to use but children could see these as dull despite their achievementsRead MoreRole Mod els Of A Person Is Growing Up988 Words   |  4 Pagesthem can be classified as mentors, models, ideal individuals, etc. These individuals labeled as â€Å"perfect examples† are always a big help to keep a consecutive attitude in not giving up for future success. These perfect examples are classified as role models because of their past experiences, impacts, and skills they have acquired. They can be a huge impact to those that are in the process of obtaining success. Role models are very helpful because they provide a model for living, motivation to succeedRead MorePositive Role Models Are Those Who Possess The Qualities That I Would Love?1664 Words   |  7 PagesPositive role models are those who possess the qualities that I would love to have and even improve on. They are those who have affected me in ways that make me want to be a better person in ways such as volunteering in the community. They help me to advocate for myself when I am falling short, help me on my step s to taking a leadership position, and even speak out on the issues that I feel strongly about. I often don’t tend to recognize positive role models until I have noticed my own personal growthRead MoreRole Of Model Leadership Model On Leadership Models1823 Words   |  8 Pages ROLE-MODEL LEADERSHIP MODEL Submitted by : Group 10 Abhishek Chourasia(PGP28236) Bharat Abhishek (IEP15024) Marco Vilardo (IEP15022) Sayan Das (PGP29307) Sudheer Tatikonda (PGP29202) To- Prof. Shailendra Singh Contents 1. IntroductionRead MoreThe Article Gender Role Models896 Words   |  4 PagesThe article Gender Role Models ... who needs ‘em?! By Stephen Hicks encouraged me to reflect on my childhood gender roles as well as how I portray my gender roles today. After learning about the socialization theory I realize my parents were traditional towards gender roles and have incorporated multiple theories of human growth and development into my gender development. I have also learned how my gender roles have gradually transformed since I was a child. Therefore, this article has brought to

Cannibal Tours Illustration of Primitivism Essay Example For Students

Cannibal Tours Illustration of Primitivism Essay In the film Cannibal Tours, rich tourists go on a cruise to New Guinea and interact with the local people. It’s interesting to note how the tourists interact with the local people and try to understand them. Throughout the film, the tourists believed that they were encountering people who were in the â€Å"state of nature. † They believed that these people represented how their own ancestors would have lived. The tourists thought of the locals as primitive, not modern, even animals. They were like attractions in a zoo, there for the people’s entertainment and enjoyment. Overall the impression that the tourists had of the locals was very dehumanized. The main purpose from what I inferred was that the people were touring for bragging rights. They wanted to be able to say that they saw a primitive culture that would soon disappear. The locals, on the other hand, understood the tourists far better. They jokingly stated that they must be their ancestors but they didn’t actually believe in it. They understood that these people were rich folk, who were going around trying to educate themselves. I thought it was amazing as to how much the natives were affected by the tourists. Over time, the native people’s goal became to earn money from the tourists. The locals needed the money to send their kids to school and buy material goods such as modern clothes. One guy even commented that its hard to make money but he can’t do much about it, so he just stood there as a lady took pictures of him. Missionaries had come and converted kids, teaching them Christian songs. Soon natives seemed like they were losing their culture. Due to the colonization, ancient artifacts were destroyed and the elders were very upset. But there was no way to restore anything. It’s interesting to note how dependent the natives became on the tourists. They evolved from their secluded village to a dependent one. Money became a tool of power. Two different kinds of primitivism were discussed in class, Hobbes and Rousseau. Hobbes theory stated that the people were primitive and immoral that they needed to develop themselves and become more like the Europeans. Rousseaus theory outlined that the modern people have lost this connection to nature that is desirable. But they both highlight the fact that primitivism exists. I feel as if the Hobbes version was outlined more in the film. The tourists’ viewpoint was very Hobbesian because they believed themselves to be the superior group and thought of the locals as primitives and beneath them. Overall the movie was interesting. It raised a lot of questions on how we as tourists can interact with locals and actually learn something from them instead of being so surface-level. Another main issue that came up was how to prevent the culture loss of all these places as they become more industrialized?